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Amstud part-time Lesson 7: The Minority

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Rachel Heller

on 15 October 2012

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Transcript of Amstud part-time Lesson 7: The Minority

Lesson 7: The Minority African-Americans Overview About 37 million (13%)
Old stock Americans + newer populations from Caribbean and Africa
Average per capita income is 65% of whites
Most live in urban areas History early 1600s: not enslaved
late 1600s: hereditary slavery
tobacco and rice plantations in Virginia and Maryland
1776: 20% of population were slaves The Triangular Trade History, cont'd. 1800: dependence on slavery diminished as rice and tobacco became less profitable.
1808: importation of slaves was banned
Eli Whitney's cotton gin: 1794
1860: slave population just under 4 million
booming cotton economy Civil War Compromises: number of slave states and free states
anti-slavery supporters: abolitionists
slave owners
Civil War: 1861-1865
Emancipation Proclamation 1863 After the Civil War Jim Crow laws in the south in effect until the 1960s
Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 (separate but equal)
1909 – NAACP
Fight for African Americans’ civil rights in general
Win repeal of the separate but equal doctrine Early 20th c – 90% of blacks lived in the south
By 1935 – many blacks had migrated to cities in the north
By the 1950s – almost half lived outside the south After the Civil War, cont'd. Civil Rights in Education 1954 – Brown v. Board of Education
Massive resistance in the South
1957 - Little Rock, Arkansas
busing Civil Rights Movement 1955 – Rosa Parks
Montgomery, Alabama
Black boycott against bus system
Martin Luther King, Jr.
1963 - ‘I have a dream’
250,000 people at the Lincoln Memorial
March on Washington Peaceful protesters and radical Blacks Black Power and Black Panther movements
Black Muslims – Malcolm X
Created their own variant of Islam
Rejected white America’s lifestyle and politics
1965 – Malcolm X killed (by Talmadge Hayer)
1968 – Martin Luther King killed (by James Earl Ray) Contemporary Situation Median income 2010
Blacks: $32,106 
Whites: $54,620
Asians:  $63,726
Hispanics: $37,759

Unemployment rates Sept. 2011
Blacks: 15.9%
Whites: 7.6%
Asians: 7.8%
Hispanics: 11.3%

Poverty rate 2009
Blacks: 25.8%
Whites: 12.3%
Asians 12.5%
Hispanics 25.3% Contemporary situation, cont'd Graduate from high school or attend college about as much as whites
Still face discrimination (housing)
Residential desegregation has been minimal  --> equal standards in schools not achieved Mainstream Black leaders Jesse Jackson
Louis Farrakhan Thurgood Marshall (1st black Supreme Courts justice)
Clarence Thomas (2nd black Supreme court justice)
Condoleezza Rice (national security advisor)
Colin Powell (Secretary of State)
Herman Cain (running for Republican nomination)

and of course: Barack Obama More mainstream Black leaders Asian Americans Summary Immigrants worked on railroads and in mines.
Much discrimination against Asian immigrants, esp. from the Irish
1869: 14th amendment -- citizenship if born in the US
1878: ruling that Chinese are ineligible for naturalization
1882: Chinese Exclusion Act -- no more immigration of laborers
1924: Oriental Exclusion Act: all immigration from Asia banned
1942: Japanese to internment camps Things get better 1943: Chinese Exclusion Act was revoked
1952: Japanese get the right to become naturalized citizens
1965: Immigration and Nationality Act: allowed immigration again,
esp. for family reunification
1988: apology and redress to Japanese-Americans Hispanics / Latinos very diverse group
much land originally part of Mexico: became California, Florida and Texas
immigrants from Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Caribbean, Central and South America
Current issues: immigration, poverty, English Hard to summarize
Full transcript