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andrew hurwitz

on 17 September 2013

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Until the 18th century
, the processes of formal composition and of the printing of music took place for the most part with the support of patronage from aristocracies and churches.

In the
mid 18th century
, performers and composers such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart began to seek commercial opportunities to market their music and performances to the general public.
In the 19th century,
sheet-music publishers dominated the music industry
which saw the

In the United States, the music industry specifically arose in tandem with the rise of
black face minstrels
- live shows and sheet music coming from i
ncreased popularization of African American music
and the growth and maturity of folk styles like the blues and ragtime plus eastern european influenes such as klezmer

Early 19th Century
In the late part of the century the
group of music publishers and songwriters
which dominated popular music in the United States became known as Tin Pan Alley

he name originally referred to a s
pecific place: West 28th Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenue in Manhattan

The start of Tin Pan Alley is usually dated to about 1885, when a number of music publishers set up shop in the same district of Manhattan. The end of Tin Pan Alley is less clear cut. Some date it to the start of the Great Depression in the 1930s when the phonograph and radio supplanted sheet music

By the early 1900s
, the big trends in popular music were the increasing popularity of
vaudeville theater
s and
dance halls

By the early 1930s Radio broadcasting of music helped to spread popular songs to a huge audience adding a new element and important player to the music industry. Also during this period "talking pictures" and movies opened a whole new market for music. By 1931 the recorded music business was booming with over 200 record labels h


The most significant feature of the emergent popular music industry of the late 18th and early 19th centuries was the extent of its focus on the commodity form of sheet music.
And the
birth of music publishing

Prior to this time, music had to be copied out by hand.
This was a very labor-intensive and time-consuming process, so it was usually undertaken only by monks and priests seeking to preserve sacred music for the church.

Also the concept of copyright was born with
The first international agreement involving copyright and the
Berne Convention of 188
6. d become parties to the convention.

The availability of inexpensive, widely-available sheet music versions of popular songs and instrumental music pieces made it possible for music to be disseminated to a wide audience of amateur music-makers, who could play and sing popular music at home.
.........and the new invention—
the gramophone player
. The record industry grew very rapidly;
The ability to record a particular band performing a particular composition using the sheet music for it, created the recorded music industry.
Live Music was always.....
The Live Music "industry" has always existed so long as there have been gatherings of people to watch musicians perform in exchange for money or value. Being a musician and delivering music to listeners, for hundreds of years have been one and the same.
1940s Artist & Repertoire
Record labels, who brought together the composers from the publishing industry and the musicians from the live industry and created a vinyl for the recording industry, would employ people to find the upcoming talent: to put the right musician with the right song in the right studio with the right producer or sound engineer and to release the record at the right time. These people became known as Artist & Repertoire Representatives (or A&R reps) who went on to pick and choose the successful artists we see today.
1950s Rise of the studio..and the rise of ROCK

This recorded music industry put much more focus on the musicians themselves, and away from the composers.
The process by which musicians were being recorded became more sophisticated, until Les Paul, in 1948, recorded the first sound-on-sound overdubbed
that recordings no longer needed to be taken live (where all musicians were in the same room playing together)

1930s - Film and Radio
Elvis Presley
was the first musician to develop an international audience
delivered through record sale
s and promoted through live performance u
ntil The Beatles brought together their own songwriting, with their performances, massive international record sales and expansive promotional live performance touring
. The Beatles marked the first mega-band to write and perform their own songs, showing it was a viable business model:

Congress declares sound recordings worthy of copyright protection in passing the 1
971 Sound Recording Amendment
to the 1909 Copyright Statute b/c. Record executives complain that teenagers tape and swap their favorite albums. in 1979.
The Walkman
revolution booms nd the cassette tape suddenly became the only format that you could have in your home, in your car, and in your pocket.
1980s - CDS
In 1982, record companies announce a worldwide standard that ensures that all CDs will play on all CD players. Billy Joel's 52nd Street, released in 1982 in Japan, becomes the first CD released in the world. By 1988, the CD surpasses the LP in sales. With the introduction of the CD, the
'80s become the most explosive boom period in recorded audio history
, as consumers replace their vinyl collections.

80s also witnessed major label consolidation
: the big 6
Music Group - EMI
(known as CBS Records until January 1991 then known as Sony Music thereafter) BMG
Music Group
1990s - NAPSTER
Shawn Fanning and Sean Parker debut the peer-to-peer file-sharing network Napster in May of 1999. In December, the RIAA sues Napster for alleged copyright infringement and the following April, the band Metallica and the rapper Dr. Dre follow suit. In 2001, after years of legal battles,

1999 -ropeadope

In 2003, Apple Computer launches itunes - in its first year, Apple sells 70 million songs at $0.99 per song, creating nearly $70 million in legal Internet music sales. Questions remain as to how the new market for legal downloading will affect the sales of physical CDs and whether it will redefine the basic unit of music consumption.
Despite increasing digital sales, the largest record labels have all reported a considerable decline in overall revenues from sales of recorded music to consumers in the first decade of the 21st century. R
evenues in the U.S. dropped by half over a decade, from a high of $14.6 billion in 1999 to $6.3 billion
in 2009
This dramatic decline in revenue has caused large-scale layoffs inside the industry, driven retailers (such as Tower Records) out of business and forced record companies, record producers, studios, recording engineers and musicians to seek new business models.[13]
And then there were 3 :
the French-owned
Universal Music Group,
the Japanese-owned
Sony Music
and the US-owned
Warner Music Grou
After Apple's iTunes Music Store debuted on April 28, 2003, sales of 99-cent digital singles surged. But that had a disastrous impact on overall music revenue.
Global Sales Are Up
Global music sales rose last year for the first time since 1999, raising hopes that a long-sought recovery might have begun.

The increase, of 0.3 percent, was tiny, and the total revenue, $16.5 billion, was a far cry from the $38 billion that the industry took in at its peak more than a decade ago. Still, even if it is not time for the record companies to party like it’s 1999, the figures, reported Tuesday by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry, provide significant encouragement
According to Billboard Magazine, 2012 year end SoundScan statistics reveal that independent labels grabbed 32.6% of U.S. recorded music sales. As was the case in 2011, independent labels outpaced each of the major label groups to snag the #1 sales sector spot followed by Universal, Sony, Warner Music and EMI.
Indy vs. Majors
The Future of......the biz

The future of....
-Record Labels
-Live Music
-Social Media
-Multi media
-Technology - streaming - itunes, spotify pandora
-Session Music

1979 - betamax
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