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Transcript of American Lit
Directly challenged the ideas of Puritanism:
Christians who came over from England.
Why study historical American Lit?
+To prepare for the junior trip to Boston, Mrs. Rash asked me to do a unit to prep you guys for what you'll see on the trip:
+Believed society and its institutions corrupted people.
+Present individuals as prone to sin and self-destruction, and not inherently possessing divinity and wisdom
Brook Farm and Fruitlands
Stages of American Lit
During the 1600s, the Christian Church was reforming. The Puritans thought it wasn't reforming ENOUGH.
So, the came the Plymouth Colonies in the Americas to do their own thing and practice their faith how they wished.
Believed the Bible was God's true law and provided a plan for living. Since God was in the forefront of their minds, He was the motivation of all of their actions.
The Puritans also believed in predestination
The doctrine of predestination kept all Puritans constantly working to do good in this life to be chosen for the next eternal one. God had already chosen who would be in heaven or hell, and each believer had no way of knowing which group they were in. Those who were wealthy were obviously blessed by God and were in good standing with Him. The Protestant work ethic was the belief that hard work was an honor to God which would lead to a prosperous reward. Any deviations from the normal way of Puritan life met with strict disapproval and discipline. Since the church elders were also political leaders, any church infraction was also a social one. There was no margin for error.
Sermons, diaries, personal narratives
Heavy figurative language
a. God alone determines fate
b. Humans are inherently evil and corrupt
Invoked fear; caused paranoia; encouraged conformity
To instruct how to be good/humble; reinforce the Purtian church
Jonathan Edwards; Cotton Mather
+Wanted to reform society using reason and logic.
+Rejected ideas grounded in TRADITION and FAITH.
+Promoted skepticism and the Scientific Method
+Opposed superstition, intolerance, and abuse of power by Church and State.
Political pamphlets, almanacs, speeches
Highly ornate, persuasive
Reason over blind faith and blind loyalty; freedom/rebellion; independence
Gain support for Revolution
Separation from Britain; creation of USA; pride and patriotism.
Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine
We will cover 4 movements:
You'll read essays, short stories, parts of novels, and watch film clips and documentaries.
"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" by Jonathan Edwards
Edwards wrote this during "The Great Awakening", a revitalization of Christian beliefs in British America.
Edwards was invited to preach at a church in Connecticut where, the Great Awakening hadn't taken hold.
His aim was to teach the church-goers about the HORRORS of Hell, the dangers of sin, and the terror of not being saved. In short, very heavy stuff.
1. Summarize Edwards' main points in paras #1 and 2.
2. Identify four fig. lang. techniques in para #5 and #6 and explain what Edwards means by them.
3. In para #8, Edwards describes God in a strange way. How is his description different from how most modern Christians view God?
4. How do you think the congregation reacted to this sermon?
"Sinners in the Hands..."
"Wonders of the Invisible World"
+Cotton Mather lived from 1663-1728. Attended Harvard and became pastor of a Church in Boston.
+Most famous for his role in the Salem Witch Trials. It was Mather who set up the trials and Mather who allowed "Spectral Evidence" to be admitted. 19 witches were hanged and 1 pressed to death. Only Mather and William Stoughton remained unrepentant in the years following the trials.
Wrote "Wonders of the Invisible World", which gave his accounts of the trials.
The challenge is to decipher Cotton Mather's antiquated vocabulary and writing style.
Summarize each of the 4 witchcraft "Curiosities" that Mather describes:
1. In para #2, explain what Paine thinks is worth looking into.
2. Paine cleverly uses a logical analogy to prove his argument. Describe this analogy.
3. Locate 2 of Paine' concessions and explain how he refutes them.
4. Summarize the logical downsides of staying with Britain (page 2).
5. Highlight Paine's call to action.
"Nature" by Emerson
"Walden" by Thoreau
"Education" by Emerson
"Self-Reliance" by Emerson
Spiritual, naturalistic, symbolic
One must transcend everyday human experience in the physical world; humans are basically good.
To encourage self-reliance; to find truth; to strive for human perfection on earth.
Idealism = true reality involves ideas, not how your senses perceive the world
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Lord Byron
Directly challenged the ideas of the Rationalists AND the Puritans
organized religion and political parties
+People were truly their best when self-reliant and independent.
+Then, society can be formed from these self-reliant people.
+ People are inherently GOOD.
a. Summarize Emerson's feelings about nature in the first 2 paras.
b. In the 4th para, Emerson says he" becomes a transparent eye-ball." Read this section and explain Emerson's mental state when he is in nature.
c. Read the 4th and 5th paras. How does Emerson feel about technology? Would he feel the same today?
d. Emerson says that loving nature's beauty is more noble than using it as a commodity. Agree?
e. On p. 813, how does Emerson define "art"?
1. What is Thoreau's purpose for living in the woods?
2. List 3 aspects of society Thoreau dislikes.
3. Explain how the Hindoo parable on p. 407 relates to New England.
1. Summarize Emerson's thesis in the first para (p.102).
3. What does Emerson mean by the "natural method" of learning? (p.104)
4. List the difficulties teachers face (p.105). Are these valid, in your opinion?
1. Choose 3 words you don't recognize; look them up.
2. What does Emerson mean by "imitation is suicide?" (paragraph 2)
3. Emerson also advises to "trust thyself." Is it ever difficult to trust yourself?
4. In the last paragraph, Emerson mentions that it's difficult to be an individual because "you will always find those who think they know what is your duty better than you know it." Has this ever been true in your life?
Most spells from Harry Potter come from Latin roots:
Using the Latin root words provided, create several spells and delineate their function.
What truly scared the Puritans was witchcraft - satanism in their midst. What makes this film terrifying is the claustrophobia of being trapped within yourself.
Describe the last film/thing to scare you and explain what exactly scared you.
Write about the most beautiful thing you've ever seen in the natural world.
Of his face, Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote: "[Thoreau] is as ugly as sin, long-nosed, queer-mouthed, and with uncouth and rustic, though courteous manners, corresponding very well with such an exterior. But his ugliness is of an honest and agreeable fashion, and becomes him much better than beauty."
Thoreau also wore a neckbeard for many years, which he insisted many women found attractive.
Thoreau's last words were "Now comes good sailing", followed by two lone words, "moose" and "Indian"
+Leading transcendentalist and abolitionist.
+Advocated simple living and environmentalism
+Practiced civil disobedience
Daily Writing Prompts
Readings + Discussion Qs
Readings + Discussion Qs
Readings + Discussion Qs
Daily Writing Prompts
Write about an aspect of EDUCATION that resonated with you. Did you see something that's true? That you wish wasn't true? How would you change education?
Anti-Transcendentalism (the Dark Romantics)
1840 - 1860
Novels, poetry, short stories
Heavy imagery, symbolism, macabre, depressing
Limitations and destructiveness of the human spirit; At their cores, humans were generally evil, bitter, and sinful beings; Rebelled against the philosophy that man is basically good
To hold readers' attention through a series of dreadful possibilities; To reveal the true spirit of the individual under the worst of circumstances
Humility at the realization of human weakness; Appreciation for honesty over idealism
Nathaniel Hawthorne; Herman Melville
+Evil is often represented in the form of Satan, ghosts, werewolves, and vampires
+Natural world is dark, decaying, & mysterious
(Revelations that nature makes to man are HELLISH and EVIL)
+Individuals fail in attempts to make change for the better
Into the Wild
(based on the non-fiction book) is the true story of Chris McCandless, a young man who donated his life savings and burned his social security card upon graduating from Emory in 1990. He spent 2 1/2 years hitchhiking all over the country looking for the truth about life. He didn't know what the meaning of life was - he was just sure it didn't mean living a normal life. His goal was to get to Alaska and survive off the land; to live a simple, basic life; to be truly alive. Later today you'll read about the result of his Alaskan adventure.
Write about a time that you had an adventure (you did something risky and were unsure of the outcome) and what you learned from this adventure.
"Travelling is a fool's paradise. Our first journeys discover to us the indifference of places. At home I dream at Naples, at Rome, I can be intoxicated with beauty and lose my sadness. I pack my trunk, embrace my friends, embark on the sea, and at last wake up in Naples, and there beside me is the stern fact, the sad self, unrelenting, identical, that I fled from."
Why do we travel? Write about a trip you've been on that was less than stellar.
-from "Self-Reliance" by Emerson
After reading "Death of an Innocent"
Is Chris McCandless a figure to be admired, or a careless, misguided fool?
In what ways does McCandless exhibit the characteristics of a Transcendentalist?
Self-reliance, independence, spirituality of nature, distrust of institutions
What detail from the text resonated with you most?
+Born 1804 - Salem, Massachusetts
+Great-great grandfather, John Hathorne, was the only judge in Salem Witch Trials who did not repent for his actions
+Nathaniel added "w" to his last name to hide this relation
+Known for writing novels and short stories inspired by Puritan New England
+Was in same social circle as Ralph Waldo Emerson
"The Birth-Mark" by Hawthorne
1. It's easy to paint Aylmer in a negative light. Can anyone defend him?
2. In what way is Aminadab Aylmer's polar opposite?
3. Putting this in the context of the Anti-Transcendental movement, what is Hawthorne's primary aim in this story?
Many critics think "The Birth-Mark" shows a conflict between man and society. To them, Aylmer represents man. His obsession with perfection brings him into conflict with society. Is it healthy to strive for perfection? Explain your response.
Is it healthy to strive for perfection? Is it natural for humans to go to extremes to fit our definition of perfect?
Readings and Discussion Qs
Daily Writing Prompts
+Combined the natural world with the spiritual and scientific.
+Changing the chemical make-up of one worldly object into that of another.
+"Alchemy” = to separate and to join together; essentially, breaking down the composition of one item to join together into another.
+Goals: 1. changing the chemical make-up of common metals so they would become gold or silver. 2. creating the elixir of life, which could grant immortality or cure any sickness.
+Could be achieved by the “philosopher’s stone” a substance that would increase the scientist’s knowledge of alchemy so much so that they could achieve one or both of the goals.
Summarize a message of "The Birthmark".
Only use 140 characters.
Think about how Aylmer must have felt after Georgiana died. What if he had to deliver a eulogy for her? In a paragraph, write what he might have said.
Write down a BIG IDEA question that you can generate from the specifics of the text.
Example: In the story, Aylmer tries to create a perfect human by 'curing' Georgianna's birthmark. He is punished.
Big Question: In what ways do scientists 'play god'?
How is "The Birthmark" anti-transcendental?
+Man is prone to sin and self-destruction
+Individuals fail to make a change for the better.
+Nature teaches a painful lesson.
List 3 ways the world would change if the "Fountain of Youth" were discovered.
+Aylmer is guilty of pride. His obsession causes his lifeto fall apart
+Aylmer certainly fails to change for the better.
+For striving to achieve perfection on Earth, Aylmer loses his wife, whom he truly loved.
Mar. 27, 2013 — In collaboration with an international research team, University of Copenhagen researchers have for the first time mapped telomerase, an enzyme which has a kind of rejuvenating effect on normal cell aging.
How old is "old"? Are the elderly respected in our society? Explain your answer.
"Older People Are Happier"
If you could stop mentally and physically growing at any age, what age would you choose? How does the research stated in the Ted Talk you just watched impact your answer?
“Mr. Medbourne, in the vigor of his age, had been a prosperous merchant, but had lost his all by a frantic speculation, and was now little better than a mendicant.”
“Some of these fables, to my shame be it spoken, might possibly be traced back to my own veracious self; and if any passages of the present tale should startle the reader’s faith, I must be content to bear the stigma of a fiction monger.”
ACTUAL DEFINITION: HONEST
“The doctor’s four venerable friends made him no answer, except by a feeble and tremulous laugh.”
ACTUAL DEFINITION: TREMBLING
“Even while quaffing the third draught of the Fountain of Youth, they were almost awed by the expression of his mysterious visage.”
“Youth, like the extremity of age, had effaced the strongly-marked characteristics of middle life, and mutually assimilated them all.”
ACTUAL DEFINITION: ERASED
“Then all shouted mirthfully, and leaped about the room.”
ACTUAL DEFINITION: GLADLY
“Inflamed to madness by the coquetry of the girl-widow, who neither granted nor quite withheld her favors, the three rivals began to interchange threatening glances.”
ACTUAL DEFINITION: FLIRTATION
Work with a partner to find one scene from the story that depicts a theme we discussed. Then, create a comic scene of it. Don't forget to use dialogue from the story!
Theory 1: The elixir is real
+Dr. Heidegger has a book of magic, a bust that speaks, a mirror which holds the images of his dead patients, and a painting that can move. Plus, the rose and the butterfly both get rejuvenated. It's a fantasy story, so we should accept that the elixir is actually magic.
Theory 2: The elixir is a fake
+It's actually alcohol. It bubbles like champagne and there are many references to wine. And the narrator always says the guests merely SEEM young again. Take a look:
"The liquor, if it really possessed such virtues as Dr. Heidegger imputed it...
"Assuredly, there was an immediate improvement, not unlike what might have been produced by a glass of generous wine....
"Was it delusion? It seemed to have wrought a change on their whole systems."
"Was it an illusion?"
If we go this route, the whole thing is just a set-up by Dr. Heidegger.
Does It Matter?
+Hawthorne is no scientist - he doesn't really care about the physics of growing old/young or where to find the Fountain of Youth.
+It's mentioned several times in the story that Dr. Heidegger is like a "philosopher." He's much more concerned with MORALS.
+What's important in his story is the EXPERIMENT. What's Dr. Heidegger's hypothesis? To test it, is it essential to actually have the Fountain of Youth?
Does Michael Jackson's "Man in the Mirror" espouse views more aligned with the philosophy of Transcendentalism or Anti-Transcendentalism? Explain.
Is it an allegory?
+What allusion is made in the story? (p. 2)
The Garden of Eden
and the Fall of Man
Who in the story is EVIL?
Who is TEMPTATION?
Who is NAIVE? (Adam)
Who is fate/higher power?
If we believe the allegory theory...
Baglioni punishes Rappaccini for his perversion of the Natural order.
Giovanni loses his naivety and his life is negatively impacted because of his curiosity.
What about another viewpoint?
Is Baglioni just a jealous and competitive man who dislikes Rappaccini?
Consider his description of Beatrice (p. 5). Is this accurate or truthful?
Is Baglioni's description of Rappaccini's restraint of "natural affection" for his daughter (p. 15) accurate?
What did you think of Baglioni's closing remark to Rappaccini? (p. 20)
Is he really naive and innocent?
Maybe SHE is the only innocent in the story, paying the price for the sins of others.
Do you think Baglioni was right, or does Rappaccini really love his daughter?
"Thou art no longer lonely in the world! Pluck one of those precious gems from thy sister shrub, and have thy bridegroom wear it in his bosom. It will not harm him now! My science, and the sympathy between thee and him, have so wrought within his system, that he now stands apart from common men, as thou dost, daughter of my pride and triumph, from ordinary women."
"Dost thou deem it misery to be endowed with marvellous gifts, against which no power or strength could avail an enemy? Misery, to be able to quell the mightiest with a breath? Misery, to be as terrible as thou art beautiful? Wouldst thou, then, have preferred the condition of a weak woman, exposed to all evil, and capable of none?"
Imagine that Rappaccini and Aylmer from "The Birth-Mark" meet. What would they say to one another about one of the following subjects?
Stem cell research
"The Tell-Tale Heart"
Pages 4-5 ("I had my head in...within the room.") - 4 paragraphs
+What is the point of view?
+How can we learn more about the narrator?
Analyze his language.
"For a whole hour I did not move a muscle."
This suggests that the narrator...
does not want to get caught.
Only someone with a great deal of fear that he won't be heard could stand that still for an hour.
"Many a night, just at midnight, when all the world slept, it has welled up from my own bosom, deepening, with its dreadful echo, the terrors that distracted me."
This suggests that the narrator...
Why do you say that?
What are words to describe the TONE of the passage we are focusing on?
Highlight NOUNS in the story that help establish TONE.
Underline VERBS that add to this tone.
Now, use a different color to highlight examples of imagery and detail that help create the TONE.
Poe uses VIVID VERBS, SPECIFIC NOUNS, and AUDITORY IMAGERY to set the tone.
"All in vain, because death, in approaching him, had stalked with his black shadow before him, and enveloped the victim."
What kind of figurative language is being used?
The author compares death to a(n) ______ in order to help establish tone.
"I know what the man felt, and pitied him, although I chuckled at heart."
Poe reveals that the narrator feels both _____ and ______.
What is the major IRONY in "The Tell-Tale Heart"?
What evidence does the narrator offer to prove that he is not "mad"?
Consider these findings. Is the narrator reliable?
Studies have found an "association between lying and increased pupil size, an indicator of tension and concentration."
Those lying are perceived to appear more nervous than those telling the truth (which may be because the voices of those who are lying are higher pitched.)
More on lie detection
Highly motivated liars (those with higher stakes) "seem unusually still and make notably less eye contact with listeners."
"Liars seem more negative--more nervous and complaining, and less cooperative--than truth-tellers" and they additionally seem to withhold more information.
Individuals lying sound "more discrepant and ambivalent, the structure of their stories is less logical, and their stories sound less plausible."
Additionally, it has been observed that they are more likely than those telling the truth to repeat words and phrases
Rappaccini's Daughter Quiz
1. What is Beatrice's special ability in the garden?
2. Who is Baglioni?
3. How does Giovanni gain access to Rappaccini's garden?
4. Describe the outcome of the antidote Giovanni gives Beatrice
1. Corruption of the human spirit is a principal theme of the work. Note 3 characters who exhibit corruption or become corrupted.
2. Find specific lines from "Rappaccini's Daughter" which espouse Anti-Transcendental themes.
4. Beatrice to Giovanni: "Oh, was there not, from the first, more poison in thy nature than in mine?" (p.20) What does Beatrice mean?
3. Explain the literary device Baglioni uses on p. 14 to convince Giovanni of Beatrice's true nature.
a. Rappaccini's soul is corrupted by his desire to meddle with Nature and value science over humanity.
b. Beatrice is corrupted in a physical manner by her father's obsession with science/power
c. Giovanni is then corrupted by Beatrice.
d. Lisabetta has probably been corrupted by Rappaccini or Baglioni
e. Baglioni appears to be corrupted by his rivalry with Rappaccini
p. 2 "For the man's demeanor was that of one walking among malignant influences.
p.4 "He would sacrifice human life...for the sake of adding...a mustard seed to the great heap of scientific knowledge. p. 17 "My father created it."
1. What is it about the old man that drives the narrator insane?
2. Where does the narrator hide the old man's body?
3. Why does the narrator eventually confess to his crime?
Throughout the text, the narrator constantly tries to convince the reader that he's "not mad."
a. Highlight signs in the story that indicate he's NOT mad.
b. In another color, highlight things that actually show he IS mad.
Tell-tale Heart Quiz
A common daily routine consisted of shooting at the mark, hunting, fishing, swimming; and evening seminars around the fireplace. The menu featured Venison, trout, grouse, and such staples as salt pork and potatoes all washed down with "foaming pans of ale. When the- larder needed replenishing the hounds were put out to drive deer to the water where they were dispatched by guide or guest. A night hunt also produced venison with the help of a jacklight.
Longfellow stated that if Emerson took along a gun someone would be shot. Emerson did; nobody was.
Some would explore the nearby woods and waters while Agassiz and Wyman enjoyed the opportunity to "dredge, dissect, and botanize." With such literary champions condensed and isolated in wilderness solitude, a great deal of social repartee obviously took place. As darkness gathered Emerson liked to row out on the lake to observe the "procession of the pines."
Dissecting a fish
If you're familiar with Fleet Foxes, you might assume this song contains Transcendentalist ideas.
But there's more...
In what ways does "Helplessness Blues" espouse the ideals of Puritanism, as well as Transcendentalism?
Hawthorne Story Resources
There is a pleasure in the pathless woods,
There is a rapture on the lonely shore,
There is society, where none intrudes,
By the deep sea, and music in its roar:
I love not man the less, but Nature more,
From these our interviews, in which I steal
From all I may be, or have been before,
To mingle with the Universe, and feel
What I can ne'er express, yet cannot all conceal.
There is Pleasure in the Pathless Woods
Locate the following:
a. 1 Slant Rhyme
b. 2 Anaphora
c. 1 Metaphor
d. The Rhyme Scheme
Week 1 (Mar 25-30): Puritanism and Rationalism.
Week 2 (Mar 31-Apr 13): Transcendentalism
Week 3 (Apr 14 - 22): Anti-Transcendentalism
Test: Friday, April 24
Possible Causes of the Salem Witch Trials
1. Mass hysteria fueled by superstition, panic, and rumor. Tituba didn't help things - her stories about demons made her an authority figure among the teenage girls and lent their claims credibility.
2. Rye mold, which contains the chemical basis for LSD. These hallucinogenic chemicals were the cause of a condition called"Dancing Mania" in medieval times.
3. People jealous of monetary, spiritual, or political power seized the opportunity to punish landholders and wealthy citizens.
4. There actually is an invisible world inhabited by demons and angels who interact with humans and interfere with their affairs.
When I was 12, my family took a trip to Crescent City, California, which is an hour north of San Francisco. This is where the redwood forests grow. If you don't know, Redwoods can grow to nearly 400 feet tall and 26 feet around. At Redwood National Park, visitors can hike through miles of dense forests of these trees; they can touch them, climb them, or just look up at them. What makes the redwoods beautiful is their simplicity - you don't expect to be awed by something as commonplace as a tree, yet I remember being filled with nervous energy. I was in a place where normal dimensions were shifted; the world I was in seemed to be from a difference time entirely. This is the first physical reaction I've had to nature.
+Describe the place/thing vividly
+Attempt to explain what makes/made it beautiful
1. Transcendentalists believe the following:
+Society's institutions corrupt
+ People are at their best when self-reliant and independent
+Humans are inherently good.
+Nature is a source of spiritualism
Locate and label example of each of these tenets within "Death of an Innocent."
How does Karakauer describe this image? Do you agree with his assessment?
Which other Alaskan adventurers does Krakauer compare Chris to? How does McCandless break the mold of the "common bush-casualty stereotype"?
Why does Krakauer feel a certain kinship with McCandless?
In other words, what is Krakauer's ethos appeal?
When it comes down to it, is Chris a transcendental figure to be admired, or an arrogant, misguided fool?
+Lived 1804-1864 in Salem, MASS.
+Descendant of John Hathorne, a judge in the Salem Witch Trials of the 1600s
+Hawthorne grappled with his strict Puritan past throughout his life. This is evident in many of his works.
Sometimes, the endings of films are ambiguous; the director is intentionally unclear about how the film concludes. To some, this is endlessly frustrating. To others it's fascinating - a riddle to be puzzled over forever. Write about a film which has an ambiguous ending, explain your interpretation, and summarize your feelings about it.
1. Each character exhibits a fatal character flaw. Identify and explain each one:
a. Dr. Heidegger:
b. Mr. Medbourne:
c. Col. Killigrew:
d. Mr. Gascoigne:
e. Widow Wycherly:
2. Analyze the symbolism present in each of the following items as it relates to the plot and theme:
a. Bust of Hippocrates
d. Skeleton in the Closet
e. Black Book of Magic
In the context of the passage, what is the best meaning of 'lacquer' (p.3)?
A. A drink C. A glove
B. A polish D. A balm
Given the conversation with her mother, the reader could characterize Muriel as the following:
A. She is very concerned about Seymour's health.
B. She wants nothing to do with Seymour.
C. She doesn't take Seymour's condition very seriously.
D. Muriel understands Seymour completely.
Seymour's childish nature is represented by all the following except______.
A. He lets Sharon sit next to him by the piano.
B. He enjoys the company of Sybil.
c. He professes to like chewing candles.
D. He obsessively picks up seashells.
In Greek mythology, sybils are figures who can see into the future. How is this allusion appropriate for Sybil?
A. She actually sees a bananafish.
B. She is a child, and children have active imaginations.
C. She knows he is pleased to see her.
D. She knows he is lying about the bananafish.
According to the text, which of the following does not demonstrate Muriel's isolation from Seymour?
A. They sleep in separate beds.
B. She won't read the book of poetry he got her.
C. Muriel seems certain Seymour is doing well.
D. Seymour never wrote to her when he was in Germany.
As it's used on p. 11, 'oblique' most nearly means
What does it mean?
Dr. Heidegger's Experiment
Many things in our culture are cyclical - they fade in and out of fashion with the times. Actually, fashion itself is a perfect example (jeans, specifically).
Describe something else from our culture which is cyclical and flows in and out of style
Theatre Performance Expectations
+During performance, your cell phone screen can never turn on or make a noise
+Listen to the theatre ushers
+Treat like a movie-going experience
+Meet back at busses at rendezvous time
Into the Woods
Take 10 minutes to consider your response to ITW:
+What worked for you?
+What didn't work?
+Did it meet/not meet your expectations?
Plot Elements / Holes
Sit with a partner
In general, it's a movement that arose in reaction against materialism and rationalism. It rejected urban lifestyles, holding them to be out of sync with nature, removing man from his element. Urban lifestyles made people rational and calculating. It made them dependent on other people. Less reliant upon themselves. More social than inidividual. More constructed and artificial and less natural and organic.
Sit with a partner
Locate the following literary devices:
As usual (for a Hawthorne story), "Rappaccini's Daughter" is an allegory. Which characters stand for abstract ideas or concepts?
What seems to be Hawthorne's overall message?