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Introduction

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Evolucion GuevaraFiore

on 17 August 2016

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Transcript of Introduction

OTOÑO 2016
BIOM-004 Teoría de la Evolución
DOCTORADO
Licenciatura
Créditos: 7
8 agosto – 1 diciembre 2016
BIOM-004 Teoría de la Evolución
Dr Palestina Guevara Fiore
FACEBOOK: Evolución Palestina Guevara Fiore
evolucion.guevarafiore@gmail.com
http://ecoevo.wix.com/palestinaguevara

Escuela de Biología BUAP
Concordia University
Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, Sheffield University
Leeds University
NTNU
University of the West Indies
POSTDOCTORADO
University of Texas A&M


Deakin University
Dr Gill Rosenthal


Prof John Endler
LECTURSHIP
Deakin University
Sensory Biology & Behaviour
Evolution


Evolution
1. La evolución biológica, ¿realidad o teoría?
2. Los principios de la teoría de evolución por selección natural
3. Teoría sintética de la evolución
4. Variabilidad genética
5. La estructura de las poblaciones
6. Especies y especiación
7. La evolución en los taxones superiores y el origen de las innovaciones evolutivas
UNIDADES:
Clases:
Clases:
Teoría (previa lectura)
Tutoriales:

Práctica (análisis, debates...)
Inglés – Español
¡Lectura!
Capítulos de libros
Artículos científicos
¡Internet!
Investigación
Comunicación
Trabajos
Literatura:
Evolution
(Futuyma)
Evolution

(Barton et al)
Evolution
(Stearns & Hoeskra)
INTERNET
Google documents:
Email:
evolución
Evolutionary theory can be applied to the study of:
Genetics
Physiology
Anatomy
Behaviour
Ecology
Medicine
Psychology
Anthropology
Theodosius Dobzhansky
“Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution”
Evolution
provides an explanation to the

‘why’
question in biology. Why are things the way they are? Why do species/populations/ individuals differ?
Definitions
Change over time in the traits of organisms that is inherited ( ‘descent with modification’ )
Change over time in allele frequencies in a population
Mechanisms
Selection & Evolution
Forms of selection
Artificial
Natural
Sexual
Charles Darwin
Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book
On the Origin of Species,
overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species
Had long gestation
HMS Beagle
Robert Fitzroy
Tribes
Fossils
Observations
But how did evolution lead to diversity?
(1790-1874)
Naval Timber and Arboriculture

(1831)
During the voyage, Darwin saw the effects of
gradual uplifting
of land in St. Jago. And in South America he saw a
volcanic eruption
at Mount Osorno, and lived through an
earthquake
in Valdivia. He made extensive notes on his observations of
weathering
,
crystallisation of lava
, measurements of
raised beaches
and many other sights which caught his interest.
Geology
Shows a descent of modern organisms from
common ancestors
. Fewer kinds of organisms existed in past eras. Deeper into layers of rock the variety and complexity of fossils decreases. The fossils from the uppermost rock layers are most like current forms.
Fossils from the deeper layers are the ancestors of modern forms.
e.g. Fossil specimens in South America (e.g. fossils of horses), which were previously not thought to have lived in the Americas.
Palaeontology
The forelimbs of such animals as humans, whales, bats, and other creatures are
strikingly similar
, even though the forelimbs are used for different purposes
(that is, lifting, swimming, and flying)
. Darwin proposed that
similar forelimbs have similar origins
, and he used this evidence to point to a
common ancestor
for modern forms. He suggested that
various modifications

are nothing more than
adaptations
to the special needs of modern organisms.
Comparative anatomy
Strong
similarity
among embryos of complex animals. Human embryos pass through a number of
embryonic stages
inherited from their ancestors because they have inherited the developmental mechanisms from a common ancestor. These mechanisms are modified in a way that is unique to an organism's way of life.
Early stages of development:
Fish, bird, rabbit, and human embryos are similar in appearance in the early stages. They all have gill slits, a two-chambered heart, and a tail with muscles to move it. Later on, as the embryos grow and develop, they become less and less similar.
Embryology
EVALUACIÓN
2 Exámenes 40
Participaciones 20
Exposiciones 10
Trabajo 15
Exposición final 15

evolucion.guevarafiore@gmail.com
Entrega de trabajos (no usar p.guevara.fiore@gmail.com)
Evolución Guevara Fiore
Grupo: TEORÍA DE LA EVOLUCIÓN OTOÑO 2016
Facebook:
Listas de alumnos para trabajos en equipo
BUAP
1. Ustedes practican
2. Ustedes aprenden
3. Necesario para posgrado
Extraordinario
80% participaciones
1) Discusión película CREATION
http://www.animesok.com/2012/03/ver-creation-creacion-2009-online.html
2) Leer:
1. ¿Cómo era la personalidad de Darwin y cuál era su visión de la ciencia?
2. ¿Era Darwin religioso? ¿Cómo contrastaba la visión de Darwin del mundo natural con los puntos de vista cristianos de la época?
3. ¿Por qué Darwin estaba tan nervioso de publicar su trabajo?
4. ¿Qué piensas de la relación de Darwin con su esposa Emma? ¿Qué tan importante esto fue para la crceaión de El origen de las Especies?
5. ¿Cómo su hija y su muerte influenciaron el trabajo de Darwin y su visión en la religión?
6. ¿Qué factores piensas que motivaron a Darwin a escribir El ODLE?
7. ¿Cuál era la relación de Darwin con sus colegas científicos?
8. El film muestra dos historias, una acerca de la tribu de Tierra del fuego (Sudamérica) y la otra acerca de ‘Jenny’ la orangután. ¿Qué influencia piensas que estas interacciones tuvieron en el pensamiento de Darwin?
9. Darwin se enfermaba frecuentemente y estaba obsesionado con su salud. ¿Qué rol crees que esto tuvo en su vida y trabajo?
Tutorial Martes 16 enero:
Futuyma (1995) The uses of evolutionary biology. Science: 267.
Carroll et al (2014) Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges. Science: 346
Tareas
Tutorial viernes 15 enero:


¿Se deben enseñar teorías alternativas a la teoría de la evolución , i.e. creacionismo/diseño inteligente, en el salón de clases? ¿Cómo se deben abordar estos temas en clases de biología?

Ayala 2008 "Science, evolution, and creationism" PNAS
www.creationwiki.org, www.talkorigins.org
TAREA: Exposición "El gen egoísta" Richard Dawkins:
1) Capítulo I: ¿POR QUÉ EXISTE LA GENTE?
2) C II: LOS REPLICADORES
3) C III: LAS ESPIRALES INMORTALES
4) CIV: LA MÁQUINA DE GENES

Discusión artículo y actividades:
Tareas
Self-organisation
1)
Alternative to natural selection as the primary mechanism underlying the evolution of function in biological systems.

2)
Self-organization is one of selection's fundamental tools & selection itself is the creative force in evolution. The same self-organizing processes we observe in
physical systems
also do much of the work in biological systems. Consequently, selection does not always construct complex mechanisms from scratch.
A process where some form of overall order or coordination arises out of the local interactions between smaller component parts of an initially disordered system.
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