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Trigeminal Neuralgia

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by

Petko Petrov

on 4 March 2014

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Transcript of Trigeminal Neuralgia


The classic type or TN1 causes extreme, sudden burning facial pain that lasts from few seconds to two minutes per episode.

The attacks can appear in short sequence that can last up to two hours.
The main symptom is the presence of pain that is described as shooting, intense, electrical shock-like, or stubbing.

The pain can hit without warning, while sometimes activities like eating, drinking, smiling or brushing teeth can trigger a pain attack.

In the beginning the attacks could be relatively mild, but over the time they become longer and more intense.
What are the symptoms?
The TN2 or "atypical form" of trigeminal neuralgian is presented by constant aching, stabbing pain which is has lower intensity than Type1.

Its not atypical that both forms of pain might be experience from the same person sometimes at the same time.
Types of TN
Trigeminal neuralgia could be caused by compression of the nerve most often be blood vessel.

The compression causes the wearing away of the myelin sheath of the nerve.

People with multiple sclerosis could acquire TN as secondary disorder.

Very rarely the symptoms could be seen in people with tumor in that area.

TN could occur as part of aging.
Causes of TN
Trigeminal Neuralgia
What is Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) ?

How is diagnosed?
Trigeminal Neuralgia is hard to diagnose.

Physical tests and neurological examination of the skull and face sometimes don't reveal any abnormalities.

People who are experiencing unexplained facial pain could be easily mistaken for dental conditions, TMG, eye condition, sinus infections, and migraines.

The diagnosis is base on the pain description. If the pain decreases by treatment for TN, the diagnosis is confirmed.
Risk factors!
Some of the risk factors are:
a. hypertension
b. multiple sclerosis
c. gender

Twice as many women are reported to be affected by TN as men.

Trigeminal neuralgia is more likely to occur in people over age 50, even though it can occur in any age, including infancy.
Treatment
Trigeminal neuralgia is treated primarily by pain management.

Some of the medication includes: carbomazepine, gabapentin, and pregabalin.

If the drugs fail to relief the pain or they cause a severe side effects, surgery may be needed. The purpose of the surgery is to damage the nerve and blocks the pain.

Unfortunately most of the time this case numbness in the face.
References
Sabalys G, Juodzbalys G, Wang HL. Aetiology and Pathogenesis of Trigeminal Neuralgia: a Comprehensive Review. J Oral Maxillofac Res. 2013 Jan 1;3(4):e2.

Fromm GH, Terrence CF, Maroon JC. Trigeminal neuralgia. Current concepts regarding etiology and pathogenesis. Arch Neurol. 1984 Nov;41(11):1204-7.

http://www.cedars-sinai.edu,

http://www.ninds.nih.gov,

http://www.mayoclinic.org


What is Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) ?
Also called "tic douloureux", is chronic pain condition that is affecting the 5th cranial nerve, which is the most distributed nerve in the head.
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