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WSC - Human Genome Project

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Allen Wang

on 19 November 2010

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Transcript of WSC - Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project is also the mapping of a complete section of the whole genenitic transfomations within their DNA! Human Genome Project (HGP) It is a creation of computerized technology that is used to figure out the human genome system. What is the Human Genome Project? History Purpose/ Goal How is the Human Genome Project conducted? Future Advantage Disadvantage By Allen Wang, Daniel Liu, and David Hung The sequence of the human genome is saved in public computers and on the internet, which is accessible to anyone on the internet. The goal of the Human Genome project is to map the human gene and saving it into the Genbank. The process of identifying the boundaries between genes and other features in a raw DNA sequence is called genome annotation and is the domain of bioinformatics. While expert biologists make the best annotators, their work proceeds slowly, and computer programs are increasingly used to meet the high-throughput demands of genome sequencing projects. The goal of the Human Genome Project is the study of its ethical, legal, and social implications. It is important to research these issues and find the most appropriate solutions before they become large dilemmas whose effect will dominate in the form of major political concerns. Begun formally in 1990
Completed in 2003
13-year project Humans have unique lines of DNA and genetic order, and that the Human Genome Project is only predicted by every test subject's genetic order. To make up for the loss of unique sequences, the Human Genome Project will allow the mapping of every human gene. A good thing about all of this researching is that they will be able to store this information in databases. Thus, they will have a great chance of improving the tools for data analysis. The can also transfer the results to other people. Human Genome?? The human genome refers to the genome of Homo sapiens, which is stored on 23 chromosome pairs. In modern genetics and molecular biology, genome refers to the entirety of an organism's hereditary information. It can be found in DNA or RNA for many types of viruses. The genome includes both the genes and the non-coding sequences of the DNA. Human Genome Project To be more specific, the Human Genome Project refers to the international 13-year effort to discover all the estimated 20,000-25,000 human genes and make them accessible for further biological study. Originally planned to last 15 years --> advanced technology accelerated the completion date to 2003. 1990 2003 Human Genome Project began
Mark gene sites on chromosome maps 1992 Low-resolution genetic linkage map of entire human genome published. 1994 Genetic Privacy Act, first U.S. HGP legislative product, proposed to regulate collection, analysis, storage, and use of DNA samples and genetic information obtained from them. Ultimately, the Human Genome Project wants to achieve the area in which it is able to find out incorrect or genes that are submitted in DNA as an error. Such an error can cause certain inheritable and genetic sickness (ex: Parkinson's), and the Human Genome Project is striving to map out the approximately 20,000–25,000 genes of the human genome to avoid such a problem. The Human Genome Project is to map out the 20,000–25,000 genes of the human genome, and to conduct such a massive experiment, scientists at the problem used a simple solution. The human genome was broken down to smaller pieces, easier for the scientists to analyze each one. The base of each DNA strand was broken down into about 150,000 bases and each one is ligated as BAC. Each of the base is then put into a shotgun seqeunce and is slowing assembled. The Human Genome Porject is headed by Francis Collins. Unfortunately, the Human Genome Project not a free and nonprofit organisation, as calculated by US Government, it costs about 3 dollars for a base pair of DNA, and if it was to be finished, it will cost a total amount of 10 billion US dollars. The Human Genome Project is also funded by the US Government (oh that's where out tax went) and is instituted and researched at several medical institute and universities. Another way of the Human Genome Project is privately funded; Craig Venter thought that it would be faster to fund the Human Genome Project himself. The records of base pairs and base sequence of the human genome is kept on record by computers, but the first sequences of the genes are written down on book records. *shotgun sequence: a method devised by Fredrick Sanger to make it easier for researchers to find out the pattern of DNA strands. The shotgun sequence randomly "fires" bases A, T, C, G into a random sequence in two orders. The two orders are then reconstructed to form a DNA strand sequence. A great problem would be the religious view with the Human Genome Project. Religious people are not going to be happy. We know that everyone's genes will be different, so some people's genes will be better. This is becoming a privacy issue. Who have the right to view the genes? 1995 First (nonviral) whole genome sequenced
(for the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae) 1999 First human chromosome completely sequenced --> on December 1, researchers in the Human Genome Project successfully sequenced the DNA that makes up human chromosome 22.
Unraveled the genetic code of an entire human chromosome for the first time. 1997 Escherichia coli genome sequence completed.

This was one of the major goals of the HGP
More than 4200 E. coli genes have been identified
Helped develop sequencing and gene-finding technology and to facilitate studies on gene function and organization 2000 HGP leaders and President Clinton announced the completion of a "working draft" DNA sequence of the human genome.
International collaborators published th genome of a kind of fruit fly --> Drosophila melanogaster 2001 The 20th human chromosome was completed sequenced to the "high quality" by the HGP. HGP declared to be completed!

Marked two major milestones in genomics:
Completed the sequecing of the human genome
50th anniversary of the discovery of the DNA double helix Thank you for listening! How would you feel you, if your genes were the "bad" ones. Then, it means that no company owners will want to choose you. Who will have the rights to own these unique set of human genes? Do you believe it is okay for scientist go and steal your gene for display? So, is it okay for us to blame every crime we done to the genes? People can say that my gene have bad effects on it, so it is okay for me to commit crime. If you want more of these awesome quotes please visit this website:http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/elsi.shtml There are many goals of the Human Genome project. They want to identify all of the 20,000-35,000 genes in Human DNA. They want to figure out the 3 billion pairs of all of the genes. Talking in a more simpler term, scientist now can predict and cure diseases. Humans can also learn a lot more about genes and DNA. New drugs can be produced, that will save people's lives. Humans can create new kind of organisms that are benefical to Earth. They might even help the extinct animals. Scientist believe that with this goal, more people can be save from diseases. It will be a lengthy process, and at the same time a lot of money would be sepnd.
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