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Musicians and Music Theory
Transcript of Musicians and Music Theory
December 17, 1770 Bonn, Germany
March 26, 1827 in Vienna Periods of music Medival: <1450 <MCDL
Reniassance: 1450-1600 MCDL-MDC
Baroque: 1600-1750 MDC-MDCCL
Classical: 1750-1830 MDCCL-MDCCCXXX
Romantic: 1830-1900 MDCCCXXX-MCM
Modern: 1900-present MCM-prezent Circle of Fifths http://music-theory.ascensionsounds.com/how-to-write-natural-minor-scales/ http://www.historyonthenet.com/Romans/numerals.htm Major Minor Symphonies #1 Op.21: C major; wrote in 1799; It sounds tamer than the other ones. It sounded different than the other more classical sounding symphonies
#2 Op.36: D major- finished in 1802. Some say it has a "sunny" nature because he wrote a sumphony deaf.
#3 Op.55 Eb major- called Eroica- it was performed privatly in August 1804. It was first publicly performed on August 7, 1805. The audience didn't understand Beethoven's story in the symphony.
#4 Op.60 in Bb major- while he was working he set it aside to get a place in the Sicilian Court. It became one of the ligher symphonies. Finished in 1806
#5. Op.67 C minor (C D Eb F G A B C)- composed in 1804-1807. First performed in December 22, 1808 with #6. It is one of the most well known symphonies.
#6. Op.68 F major -called Pastoral- people didn't like it as musch because of the way #5 sounded. But it is one the most popular ones. It was finished in 1808.
#7. Op.92 F major -completed in 1812, it was first premiered on December 8, 1813 in the University of Vienna. People saw it as the "Symphony of Dance."
#8. Op.93 F major- Beethoven's shortest symphony- only 26 minutes. Finished in 1812 and preimered with #7
#9. Op.125 D minor- called Choral- It was completed in 1824, when he was 100% deaf. It was priemered on May 7, 1824. It as the first symphony with human speech as oud as the instruments. Words to know Op.= opus= set of musical compositions
Harmony= "brackground music" different harmony with the same melody sounds different
Melody= The tune or humming part. "main part"
Operas= people perform dramatic work with musical score and text. It's a Western Classical music tradition starting in the late 1500's.
Oratorios= performing with an orchestra, choir, and a soloist.
Concerto grossi= Italian for big concerto= a form of baroque music using soloist and and orchestra. A solo instrument with the melody line with the orchestra backing it up.
Score= music on paper or print Fun Facts He wrote his 9 symphonies between 1799 and 1824.
He studied with Franz Joseph Haydn.
He might have met and studied with Mozart for a brief time.
In his 20's he lost part of his hearing. Johann Pachelbel Works Life
95 magnificat fugues
60 organ chorales
3 ricercars (like a prelude)
26 non-liturgical fugues
17 keyboard suites
8 keyboard variations
3 keyboard arias with variations
3 pieces for chamber orchestra
11 motets (9 in German)
11 sacred concertos
25 magnificats & ingressi for Vespers
2 masses Johann was born September 1, 1652 and died March 3, 1706. As a kid he loved music and dad got him lessons fro Hienrich Schwemmer. For high school he attended St. Lorenz High School. He was so good and he went to any schools and go special attention for his brains. He was the only one who survived the terrible sickness and went back to be a very amazing composer. Most Famous Compostition Pachelbel's Canon in Dmajor www.pachelbel.us Dynamics and Signs ppp= pianississimo pp= pianissimo p=piano mp=mezzo piano mf=mezzo forte f=forte
ff=fortissimo fff=fortississimo = Crescendo=gradually get louder = diminuendo=decrescendo=gradually get softer = Messa di Voce rf=rinforzando=sudden increase in loudness
s z=sforzando=play the note with sudden emphasis f =double sharp = double flat #=sharp b=flat C=common time 4
4 C=cut time 2
4 tr=trill=going back and forth between two neighboring notes = fermata= hold note out longer ,
=coma=breath mark =triplet=three eighth notes equals one quarter note=trip-i-let or blue-ber-ry =quater note=one beat in four-four time = half note= two beats in four-four time = whole note= four beats in four-four time = dotted quarter note=1 1/2 beats ( in four-four time, 3 beats in anything with an eight on the bottom) usually folled by a eitghth note = dottd half note= 3 beats in four-four time =eighth note= 1/2 beat in four-four time= one flag =sixteenth note=1/4 beat in four-four time=two flags = 32nd note=1/8 note= three flags = dotted eighth note=3/4 beat in four-four time= usually followed by a sixteenth note = lower part of bow (stringed instruments) = higher part of bow (stringed instruments) Compositions:
Messiah, Deborah, Esther, Daphne, Ezio, Gulio Cesare, Water Music, Royal Fireworks. George Frideric Handel Quote "Handel is the greatest compoer who ever lived. I would bare my head and kneel at his grave."
-L.v. Beethoven DOB: Febuary 23, 1685
DOD: April 14, 1759 Mini bio:
Handel is a German-English composer of the baroque time. He is most famous for his oratorio, Messiah. He made many, many operas,oratorios, and concerto grossos. Major=happy sounding=using the key signature without any naturals or any extra sharps and flats
Minor=sad sounding=doesn't folow the key signature by using naturals, sharps and flats.
Octave=eight notes=middle c to high c or d to d. two of the sames notes just higher or lower
Tonic= root note
Leading Tone= 7th note
Interval=the distance between two notes
Natural minor scale= three half steps down from the major scale
Harmonic minor scale= raise the 7th a half step.
Melodic minor scale (acending)= the major scale with a lowered 3rd.
Melodic minor scale (descending)=the natural minor scale. As you know a chord is 3 or more notes.
traids are easiest to play but there is a
thirteenth. Chords You have a major, minor, diminished, and augmented chord.
A major chord is "following the rules" or doesn't have an accidental and follows the key signature.
A minor chord has accidental(s) and breaks the rules.
A diminished chord is the minor chord with a lowered fifth.
An augmented chord is root position but with a highered fifth. Augmented= raised, highered Root position: key signature's triad
First inversion: root position with the tonic an octave up.
Second Inversion: Where the tonic and the 3rd note up. I= root position
IV= subdominant's root position in the key signature
V= dominant's root position in the key signature
V7= V chord but with leading tone added =Accent Mark= play that note only with more emphasize. = accidental= using any different sharps, flats, or naturals that is not in the tie signature=ex. G in A major (A,B,Csharp,D,E,Fsharp,Gsharp,A) Alberti Bass= broken chord played as low, high, medium, high There is more to music than I can ever imagine, but I gave you all I could, so this your musical education of the day and enjoy my own composition of music from what you have learned today! Franz Joseph Hadyn Biography Works DOB: March 31, 1732 in Rohrau, Austria
DOD: May 31, 1809 in Vienna Austria He was the second of twele siblings. His uncle taught him for two years after he saw his talent. When Hadyn was 8, he was recruited into the St. Stephen's Cathedral. He learned the piano and violin. The Classical era (do to my data) started when he was 18. He taught a little and sang in a new choir. He married Maria Anna Keller in 1760 with unhappy results. A year later he started working for Prince Anton Esterhazy. He wrote many pieces after Anton dies for Anton's brother, Nicolaus, who wanted so much music. Hadyn worked harder than the hardest worker today. Soon he became friends with Mozart who helped him a smidgeit. Hadyn wrote the National Anthem for Austria which is a hymn today. 107 symphonies
and 62 sonatas Birth name: Johannes Chrysotomus Wolfgang Gottlieb Mozart.
When he was 3, he began to play the keyboard. Two years later he composed his first piece. At age 7 he got his first published piece and took a tour around Europe. In 1974 he wrote his first the symphonies and met Johann Christian Bach. When he was a teenager he MASTERED the violin, piano, and harpsicord. When he grew up he moved to Vienna as a pianist and composer for a living. He had a hard time handling that he was not a child prodigy. He married Constance Weber in St. Stephen's Cathedral. He died because of rheumatic fever Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart DOB: January 27, 1756 in Salzburg, Austria DOD: December 5, 1791 -35 in Salzburg, Austria before 1 a.m. Tempos Slowest- Larghissimo -Grave
-Presto Fastest- Prestissimo Camille Saint-Saëns Instrument families Brass Instruments made from brass or metal and makes a sound when blow into. Trumpet, Cornet, French Horn, Trombone, Bariton, Tuba, Sousaphone, and Euphonium Strings When you bow or pluck a string to make it vibrate tomake the sound. Violin, Viola, Cello, Bass, Harp, Guitar, and Dulcimer Piano Percussion When you hit, shake, rub, or scratch an instrument to make a sound Drums, Cymbals, Triangles, Chimes, tam-tam, glockenspiel, timpani, bells, and xylophone. Woodwind When you blow air inside an instrument and it vibrates to make a sound Flute, Piccolo, Basson, Clarinet, Recorder, and Oboe DOB: October 9, 1835 in Paris, France Bio He was a French Romantic composer. Camille was also a child prodigy. When he was 2 years old he could pick out tunes on the piano. A year later he wrote his own piece. At age 7 he started giving concerts as a pianist and organist. When he was doubled-digits (10) he offered to play one of Beethoven's 32 sonatas by memory. He memorized every piece he ever played. He was also a conductor, critic, music scholar, teacher, and composer. He was admired by Charles Gounod, Rossini, Berlioz and especially Franz Liszt, who called him the world's greatest composer. Works Aquarium, 2 piano concerto, 5 symphonies, Spartacus Overture, and many, many more. Liszt Franz
Daniel, his son, dies; 1860, His daugter, Blandine, dies; 1860, a rival does something good in the War of Romantics;1865, got a monk-style haircut;1865, the Catholic church gave him four minor orders. He kept making music, simpler music, with more extreme harmonies. When he was 70 he fell down some stairs an was immobliezed for eight weeks. Years later he became sick with pneumonia and died around midnight. Before he died he made 350 scores. DOB: 1811, October 22 in Raiding, Hungary
DOD: 1886, July 31 in Bayreuth, Germany Johann Sebastian Bach DOB: March 21, 1685 in Eisenach
DOD: July 28, 1750 in Leipzig, Germany His dad was a musician and taught Johann to play the violin. WHen he was 7 and went to a religous school and learned latin and a few other things. By age 10 he was an orphan and his older brother took him under his wings. He stayed untill he was 15. By 1703 he found his first job as a musician In 1707 he got an organist job. He had to make sinple pieces because the priest wanted him to make simple pieces. When he was 32 he got a position with Prince Leopold. In 1723 the prince got rid of the orchestra position but also had to teach. By age 55 he had a troubled eyesight but didn't give up. Then he played for King Frederick of Prussia in 1747. He got surgery for hsi eyes, left blinded and died a bit later. Voice Types Soprano Middle C to High C and sometimes octaves up Alto E below Middle C up to
G above Middle C Tenor C below Middle C up to
Middle C Baritone The A below Middle C and up
an octave Bass The E below Middle C and an octave up All rights to SFS kids. Soprano
Bass DOD: December 16,1921 in Algeria At age 6, he was seen as a child prodigy. When he was 8 he started composing. He toured Eurpoe, best known as a pianist. He, as a child gave performances to musicians and KINGS. By age 12 he went to Paris and wanted to attend the Paris Conservatory and got denied and went to Ferdinando Paer for advanced composition. He wrote his only opera there, "Don Sache." When his dad died he didn't want music anymore to quit and extent and starting reading books about arts and religion, which helped him with his music later on. Soon he heard sigismond Thalberg was performing in Paris. Then he deuled with Thalberg having to win. He mainly composed for piano and transposing pieces for the piano. A year after the great fire of Hamburg he wanted to make new forms of music. His most famous is a symphonic poem which is orchestral music in one continuing section in which the content is any non-musical thing. It related to an opera but isn't and unites music and drama. In these years many devasting things happend starting with There is more to music than I will ever know and I have given you all that I know and enjoy! J C B
o h a
h r c
a i h
n POB: Leipzig, Germany
POD: London, England DOB: September 5, 1735
DOD: January 1, 1782 Johann is a classical era composer. The eleventh and last song of Johann Sebastian Bach who was 50 when J.C. was born. When J.C.'s dad died at 15 he started studying with his older brother, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (probably the musically gifted). He composerd cantanas, chamber music, keboard music, orchestral music, operas, and symphonies. He l.ived in Italy starting in 1756 studying with Padre Martini. Johann got an orgainist position at the Milan catherdral in 1760. He earnded a reputation in London and Queen Charlotte called him a music master. In 1766 he met singer Cecelia Grassi and shortly marred. He never had kids. He then died shortly after as a very famous musician. Types of Compositions Mazurka A Mazurka is a Polish folk dance in three-four time. It's on a lively tempo including an accent on the 2nd or 3rd beat. Étude French=study MUSIC Beautiful rich composers creativity musicians Beethoven Chopin Liszt Tempo dynamics Circle of Fifths periods of music orchestra Opus voice Compositions Etude A difficult musical composition for instruments. It's written for someone to perfect a skill. It started in the 19th century and can be a teaching material. Prelude A short music with different forms almost every time. Preface:book::prelude:music. It can be alone or introduce other music. Overture Instrumen-tal music that introduces an opera. Nocturne French=nocturnal
a musical composition that's inspireed by night. Waltz A ballroom and folk dance written in three-four time with dancers dancing closely. Polonaise French for Polish. A slow polish-origin dance in three-four time. Rondo Italian for round. It has an instrumental form hat keeps coing back, slightly different each time. It is often found in a sonata or concerto Sonata A classical composition for a solo instrument (louder instrument) with piano accompaniment. Concerto A concerto (plural concerti) is usually a three part comp. with a solo instrument accompianied by an orchestra. Ballad a one movement (or part) piece with lyrics or drama narritives. Impromptu French for offhand, a free-form composition with ex tempore (a song without thinking before, improvise) and it is made for a solo. Opera People perform dramatic work with musical score and text. Western classical music tradition startin in the late 1500's. Oratorios Performing with an orchestra, choir, and a soloist concerto grosso Italian for big concerto. A form of baroque msuic with a group of soloist and an orchestra. Scherzo A playful, light composition often a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony or a sonata. Ecossaise A type of contra dance (partner dance in two lines) in a scottish style, usually danced in 2/4 time. Chorale Part of a christian hymn. Tocatta Mainly made for keyboard with fast moving finger or made for the composer's fingers. Occasionally made for more instruments. Fantasia Free form and often improvising or bassed on a familiar tune. Aria A long song for solo singers with accompianment = roll= to play one at a time but still hold out the note value. Cadence= chords at the end or a movement, part, or song.