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Red River Rebellion

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Garry Poopson

on 2 December 2014

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Transcript of Red River Rebellion

How might've the Red River Rebellion had an impact on the development of Canada?

How might’ve Louis Riels image and actions in & for the Red River Rebellion have affected the actions taken by the Canadian Government, as well as the outcome of the Rebellion itself?
Why was the Red River Rebellion such an influential part of both Canada’s and Manitoba’s history?
Reason for 1st question: If I clearly understand how the Rebellion affected the people that genereally started it, I'll have a clearer understanding about how it effected the rest of the nation.
Reason for 2nd question: Riel was the one to take the initiative to gather the Metis people so they could stand independent of the Canadian Government. Understanding his involvement will help me understand how he helped influence Canada's development.

Reason for 3rd question: Why was the Rebellion so important? It's importance in Manitoba's history certainly means something when deciding how it affect our development as a nation.
The Red River Rebellion
of 1869-'70

What kind of affect did the Red River Rebellion make on the Metis people?
Did you know?
All in all, the Red River Rebellion was both a positive
and negative experience for Canada as a whole.
Canada officially proclaimed a new province, which bettered the lives of the Metis for as long as it did, and solved MANY legal issues as far as ownership to the land, permissions of trade, as well as other issues that we no longer have.
It was also start of the massive geographical changes that occurred in Canada from 1870 and further on.
However, after the Red River Rebellion, the relationship between the Metis and the Canadian government went sour.
The Metis population did not thrive, and their rights were severely mismanaged by the authorities.
The Red River Rebellion also resulted in yet another attempt once again by Louis Riel to fight for the Aboriginals of Canada.
North-West Rebellion happened in 1885, and there were over 800 casualties in about a 1 and a half timespan!
Overall, the Red River Rebellion definitely influenced the developement of Canada, further trading in the North and Northwest, and the lives and future ones of the Metis people!
Reason behind big question: I think the best way to learn about and fully understand the Rebellion itself, is to see how it effected the nation as a whole.
The Red River Rebellion in my eyes, was a peaceful protest (before the assassination of Mr.Scott) against the government of the Metis people to ensure their traditional lifestyle was kept . This lead to a more violent one known as the Northwest Rebellion which occurred in Saskatchewan about 15 years later.
Intro Question
What was the Red River Rebellion?
The Red River Rebellion was an uprising by the Metis people in modern day Manitoba. The Metis people were worried they would lose their land that they inherited from their ancestors. They also knew the most of the Parliament of Canada was protest, and they thought they would not allow be allowed to carry on their Catholic beliefs. They created their own government in the summer of 1869, and they sent a list of demands to the Canadian government, including protection of the French language. In next year's May, the Parliament of Canada passed a new law known as the Manitoba Act.
An early photo of the Metis' established government!
The Red River Rebellion had both a direct as well as indirect affect on the future and lives of the Metis people of the Red River Colony.
The fruit of the Red Rebellions success was the Confederation of Manitoba through the Manitoba act.
The act recognized many rights of the Metis people, including freedom to have the right to elect their own representative for a provincial legislature, the freedom of both cultural and religious practices, and reserved land for the future of the Metis people to thrive.
Unfortunately, some of these rights were mismanaged by the federal governments. Another crucial fact is that the execution of Thomas Scott was seen as a martyr. The fact that the government had no particular fondness for the Metis, was now replaced with a more bitter hate.
Sir John A. Macdonald (the current and first prime minister of Canada) sent 1200 troops to confront the government for what was considered an act of treason. Anyway, long story short Riel fled and all members of the provisional government were given amnesty, except for Louis.
Although the provisional government made its major objectives a reality — a distinct province with land and cultural rights guaranteed — the victory was hollow.
The Métis population did not expand after 1870 in Manitoba. They soon found themselves so disadvantaged in Manitoba that they moved farther west, into present day Saskatchewan.
Louis Riel was the face of the Red River Rebellion.
He was the one to organize, convince, and unite the Metis people to rebel against the government. He wanted to be able to keep the things he had in his hometown, and he believed his people deserved that too.
The initial act of defiance from Riel was when the William McDougall and his associates were sent in to survey the farm land (Rupert's Land), now that the Hudson's Bay Company owned it. Many Métis did not have clear title to their land, and although Ottawa intended to respect Métis occupancy rights, no assurances were given by the government that this would be the case.
Riel and other refused to let the government officials enter their colony. The Canadian Government then refused to assume control of the territory (the opposition of Riel was an outlaw and a threat).
Meanwhile, Metis rebels seized a major HBC trading post, known as Fort Garry. They planned to hold it until the Canadian government agreed to negotiate.
Soon afterward, In January Riel gained the support of most of the anglophone community in a second convention, which agreed to form a representative provisional government to discuss terms of entry into Confederation.
Violent conflict persisted over the winter, yet Riel seemed in control until he made permitted the execution of a prisoner, Thomas Scott, one of a group of English-speaking Ontario settlers who opposed the rebel government. Scott and some others had been captured and imprisoned at Upper Fort Garry.
This made Scott into a martyr for the anti-Catholic Orangemen of Ontario and fanned the flames of French/ English conflict in the young country. It also discredited much of the good work Riel had done and eventually led to his own execution 15 years later. Although the Canadian authorities were still willing to negotiate with Riel, they refused to grant an unconditional amnesty to him.

Louis Riel
Riel was born in 1844 in Saint-Boniface, in the Red River Settlement. His father, Louis Riel, Sr. — a businessman and political leader in the Métis community — organized a large Métis resistance to the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) fur-trading monopoly at the trial of Pierre-Guillaume Sayer in 1849. Riel’s political legacy likely influenced his son, who left Red River at a young age to study in Québec.
From the beginning of his formal education, Riel emerged as a standout student. At 13, the Catholic clergy in the Red River parish of Saint-Boniface identified him as a strong candidate for the priesthood, and he was given a scholarship to study at a Sulpician school in Montréal. Riel excelled at this junior seminary, where he soon neared the top of his class. He also acquired a passion for poetry, which he nurtured for the rest of his life. While studying for the priesthood, Riel met a young French Canadian woman, Marie-Julie Guernon, to whom he quietly became engaged. However, in the racially charged atmosphere of the day, Guernon’s parents refused to allow her to marry a Métis man and the engagement was broken off. Riel left the seminary and moved back to Red River.
Louis Riel at age 14

Louis Riel at about
Kind of sad...
Louis Riel was elected three times to the Canadian House of Commons.. Although Riel was elected, he never took his seat in the House.
He was hanged at age
41... :(
The Red River was populated mainly by francophone and anglophone Métis people. Most were the descendants of French and English voyageurs and coureurs de bois who had come west in the fur trade and settled down with Aboriginal wives.
The Red River Rebellion was an important part of Canadian history, simply because it marked the birth of Manitoba.
It gave the Metis FORMALIZED rights that they enjoy to this day, a well as newer things (Canada is much more civilized today then it was back then) such as humane living conditions, fair wages, and human rights (they were treated as outsiders back in the 1800's and early 1900's).
It didn't just have a positive effect on our history, the Red River Rebellion actually led the Metis people to be extremely disadvantaged in Manitoba in the past (I already mentioned this).
Louis Riel basically started it all, and he is often referred to as the 'Father of Manitoba'.
Overall, the sacrifice of the Metis changed Canada, mainly for the better.
After Manitoba was officially recognized (even though it was virtually miniscule), the issues regarding managing Rupert's Land (it was a mass portion of Canada) were almost a thing of the past, because it led to the later expansion of Ontario, the creation of Saskatchewan, Alberta, and boundary finalization of Manitoba!
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