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Bacterial Meningitis

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Morgan Holcombe

on 21 November 2016

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Transcript of Bacterial Meningitis

-Bacterial meningitis is caused by inflammation of the meninges (membranes around the brain and spinal cord) and is a type of anatomical syndrome.

-Bacterial meningitis is actually more serious than acute forms. The bacteria gets into the CNS through coinfection or previous infections in the respiratory tract.

-Common symptons are sensitivity to light, headaches, painful/stiff neck, fever, and increased white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid.
Important Information & Facts
-
80%
of all cases of meningitis are bacterial meningitis

-Bacterial meningitis has a death rate of
10%
if not treated and diagnosed early

-Adolescents and infants are more likely to contract meningitis than adults

-Infection rate is only
1%
however due to people having natural immunization
History
1805
First true description after outbreak in Geneva, Switzerland
1840
First outbreak in Africa, which later became more common
1887
Meningococcal bacteria was described after a bacterial infection leaded to meningitis
1891
Early scientist used lumbar puncture to analyze cerebrospinal fluid
1906
Found that horses could be used to create antibodies against meningococcal bacteria.
1944
Penicillin was reported to be effective in treating meningitis
This began the use of both penicillin and sulfoamides as antibiotic therapy
2000
Parents and college-aged children were recommended to get the vaccine for meningitis
2002
Steroids could improve the conditions of bacterial meningitis and improved long term outcome
Background
Newborns/Infants
Group B Streptococcus
,
Streptococcus pneumoniae
,
Escherichia coli
are all common bacterial causative agents in newborns and infants.
Listeria monocytogenes
is rare and generally is acquired through food-borne infection in the womb.
Chronobacter sakazakii is
found in powdered milk formula and can survive very dry conditions
Older Adults
Streptococcus pneumoniae
is the most common causative agent in elders
Neisseria meningitidis
Haemophilus influenzae type b
Group B Streptococcus
Listeria monocytogenes
Adolescents/Young Adults
Neisseria meningitis
causes the most serious form of acute meningitis. It is often associated with epidemic forms of meningitis and is responsible for 25% of all cases.
Streptococcus pneumoniae
is the most frequent cause of community-acquired meningitis
Contaminated Foods
Bacterial mengingitis can also be contracted from exposure to
Listeria monocytogenes
.
Listeria monocytogenes
is bacteria that comes from foods such as hot dogs, deli meats, soft cheese, or unpasteurized milk and juice.
Direct Contact
Bacterial meningitis can be spread from person to person through kissing or coughing due to exchanging saliva & spit.
The Basics of Bacterial Meningitis
Possible Causative Agents
Modes of Transmission
Bacterial Meningitis
Lysis to kill: MOrgan Holcombe, Margaret Christy, Corrie Hester, Victoria SAter, and Kristen Carter
Virulence FActors
Epidemiology
Treatment & Prevention
Question #1
Question #2
TEST QUESTIONS!
REferences Used:
Treatment
A spinal tap is performed to get cerebrospinal fluid. The fluid is then gram stained or cultured.
Treatment most likely begins with a broad spectrum antibiotic and changed later if necessary after more results.

One thing to remember is that most of the bacteria that causes bacterial meningitis are NOT as contagious as ones that cause viruses or a cold
CArrier Status
-People that are not sick can actually carry the bacteria in their respiratory tract without any signs or symptoms.

-While most carriers do not become sick, the bacteria is capable of invading the body and causing disease.

-Carriers include infants and especially adolescents as well since they are more suseptible.
"Meningitis | About Bacterial Meningitis Infection | CDC." Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention. CDC, 15 June 2016. Web. 24 Oct. 2016.
Bacterial meningitis is very common on college campuses
Most recent outbreak: At Santa Clara two students were said to have menigitis, while one had the same bacteria in his blood stream
Sub-Saharan Africa is at risk during the dry seasons: December-June
Logue, Josh. "Meningitis on Three Campuses Leads to One Outbreak
and One ..." Inside Higher Ed. N.p., 08 Feb. 2016. Web. 24 Oct. 2016.
Prevention
The most effective prevention is to complete the recommended vaccine schedule. There are vaccines for three of the types of bacterias:
Nesisseria meniginitidis
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae
type b (Hib)
Maintaining healthy habits and avoiding close contact with those who are infected. This is especially important for infants, older adults, and those with weak immune systems.
Decreasing the spread by using antibiotics if in close contact to infected person.
Where does it occur?
The PorB protein is a part of the classification of
proteins that attaches to a membrane and aids
in membrane transport in gram negative bacteria

When a host is invaded and the bacterial cell attaches to the host cell, the PorB protein is transferred to the host's mitochondria. Here, it stays open allowing leakage to occur, damaging the mitochondria.
Rouzer, Carol A. "Key to Virulence of Meningitis Bacterium." Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology. N.p., 8 Apr. 2010. Web. 25 Oct. 2016.
Who is more likely to contract bacterial meningitis?

a. Older adults (51-70)
b. Adolescents & newborns
c. College students
d. All are equally likely
Which of the following is a virulence factor of bacterial meningitis?

a. Coagulase
b. PorB protein
c. Hemolysin
d. Leukocidin
This capsule is a protective coating that protects against phagocytes (cells that recognize and engulf foreign cells in order to stop spread)
This capsule keeps phagocytes from sensing they are foreign
Not Indirect Contact!
Bacterial meningitis cannot be spread through indirect contact, such as casual contact or breathing the same air.
However, people who have a weak immune system or head trauma can contract the disease without getting it from another person.
PorB Protein
Antiphagocytic Polysaccharide Capsule
"Bacterial Meningitis." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 15 June 2016. Web. 26 Oct. 2016. <http://www.cdc.gov/meningitis/bacterial.html>.
Cashin-Garbutt, April. "History of Meningitis." News-Medical.net.AZO
Network, 14 Oct. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2016. <http://www.news-medical.net/health/History-of-Meningitis.aspx>.
Santa Clara. 03 Aug. 2014. Santa Clara. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Google Images. Web. 26 Oct. 2016.
Macrophage Cartoon. 14 Nov. 2014. Google Image. Web. 26 Oct. 2016.
Hospital Acquired Meningitis
Hospital-acquired and post tramatic meningitis are commonly drug resistant and caused by:
Klebsiella pneumoniae
E. coli
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Staphylococcus aureus
Mayo Clinic Staff. “Meningitis”. The Mayo Clinic, 12 January 2016.Web. 26 October 2016.
[Bacterial Meningitis]. (n.d.). Retrieved October 27, 2016, from https://www.healthtap.com/topics/why-is-bacterial-meningitis-worse-than-viral
More References Used:
Savedge, Jenn. "9 Ways Babies Are Really Weird." MNN. Narrative Content Group, 8 Jan. 2016. Web. 27 Oct. 2016. <http://www.mnn.com/family/babies-pregnancy/blogs/9-ways-babies-are-really-weird>.
"Secrets of Successful College Students - Holy Kaw!" Holy Kaw! Nononina, 14 Mar. 2013. Web. 27 Oct. 2016. <http://holykaw.alltop.com/secrets-of-successful-college-students>.
"Older Adults Resources." Fairfield County 2-1-1 Information and Referral of Fairfield County, Ohio. Fairfield County 211, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2016. <http://www.fairfieldcounty211.org/older-adults-resources.html>.
"Hospitals." Zombiepedia. Fandom Books, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2016. <http://zombie.wikia.com/wiki/Hospitals>.
Prevalence and Incidence
Whitfield, Tony. "Smokers Warned Not to Ignore Cough - It Could Be the Sign of Something Much Worse." Mirror Online. MGN, 28 Dec. 2015. Web. 27 Oct. 2016. <http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/smokers-warned-not-ignore-cough-7085518>.
"Is Deli Meat Paleo?" Paleoista. Paleoista Inc., 13 June 2013. Web. 27 Oct. 2016. <http://www.paleoista.com/food-and-drink/is-deli-meat-paleo/>.
Rettner, Rachael. "How to Avoid Spreading the Flu." MNN. Narrative Content Group, 2 Jan. 2013. Web. 27 Oct. 2016. <http://www.mnn.com/health/fitness-well-being/stories/how-to-avoid-spreading-the-flu>
"MeetMeningitis.com." Know The Facts About Meningococcal Meningitis. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2016. <http://www.meetmeningitis.com/facts-about-meningitis>.
"Lumbar Puncture Needle." JuniorDentistcom. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2016. <http://www.juniordentist.com/lumbar-puncture-needle.html>.
Over 1.2 million cases worldwide every year
4,000 people each year are affected in the U.S.
Cases have dropped in the United States by 55%
500 deaths occur anually due to Bacterial Menigitus
Incidence is extremely variable based on region, country, pathogen, and age
Who does it affect?
Children under the age of five and adults over the age of 60 - 70
People living in crowded areas that are unvaccinated
College dorms, and military barracks
Those living in the sub-Saharan African Meningitis belt
Those with asplenia
Chapter 2: Epidemiology of Meningitis Caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenza. (2012, March 15). Retrieved October 27, 2016
Incidence and Prevalence of Meningitis. (2001, December 31). Retrieved October 27, 2016.
Who is at risk? - NMA. (n.d.). Retrieved October 27, 2016, from http://www.nmaus.org/disease-prevention-information/who-is-at-risk/
-The causative agents cause more internal symptoms rather than signs that can be seen on the skin.
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