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P.E Pedagogy

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A Sheehan

on 10 February 2014

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Transcript of P.E Pedagogy

Health Related Activity
"Being all muscly and stuff"

"Being skinny and attractive"

"Being quare good at sports and stuff"

"Eating properly"

"Not eating chipper all the time"
Student Opinions
Health Related Activity
Physical Education Pedagogy
Meet the presenters;

Laura Smith
Fionn O'Shea
Julie Rogers
Deirdre Doyle
Paul Costello
Aisleen Sheehan

So what is H.R.A?
Health Related Activity (HRA) according to Harris (2002) is the association of health enhancement with physical activity.
How important is health in P.E?
Cardiovascular Disease
Type 2 Diabetes
1/5 15-17 year olds are obese
Health Related Activities seeks to develop...

- An understanding of the role of health-related activity in the promotion of well being.

- An understanding of the scientific principles that underpin health-related activity.

- The ability to measure and monitor her/his physical well being.

- A sense of responsibility for her/his own good health and well being.
The JCPE syllabus states that promotion of skilled movement and fitness is an important means of developing and maintaining healthy lifestyles.
Introduction to the principles of training
Health Related Fitness
Warm Up
Cool Down
Physical Activity
the Body
Components of HRA
Health Benefits of Physical Activity
Health Benefits of P.A
Stress & Anxiety
Energy Levels
Self Esteem
Risk of lifestyle illness
Lifelong Physical Activity
- F.I.T.T.
- Reversibility
- Progressive Overload
- Specificity
Introduction to the Principles of Training
How it was Incorporated:
“The cool down included a questioning session that included elements of the warm-up and cool down (breathing, HR, body temp)” Pauls Lesson

From Literature:
Warm up can serve many purposes and should be organised to meet the goals of the lesson. The cool down allows the body to return to resting level and teaches students good practices. (NASPE, 2005, pg. 45-46)
Warm-up and Cool Down
- Health Related Fitness v Performance Related Fitness
- Muscular Strength and Endurance
- Cardiovascular Endurance
- Flexibility
- Body Composition
(Action for Life, 2007)
Health Related Fitness
- Pulse Raising Activity
- Joint Mobility
- Safe Appropriate Stretching
- Activity Specific Warm-up Exercises

Cool Down:
- Pulse Lowering Activities
- Bring the Body Back to Resting State
- Controlled Passive Stretching
(Action for Life, 2007)
Warm-up and Cool Down
How it was incorporated:
“Incorporated into the lesson by teaming it up with exercises to work on the run in relay and the leg muscles in the body” Fionn’s class

From Literature:
"HRF is a measure of a persons ability to perform physical activities that require endurance, strength, or flexibility. It is achieved through a combination of regular exercise and inherent ability“ (NASPE, 2005, pg. 5)
Health Related Fitness
How it was incorporated:
“Max heart rate was covered and % at which need to work at to improve health and fitness” Laura’s class

From Literature:
“A healthy lifestyle is achieved by eliminating unhealthy behaviours; this requires behaviour modification”
(Powers and Dodd [1997] cited in NASPE, 2005, pg. 15)
Activity and the Body
- Heart Rate
- Breathing
- Body Temp
- Muscles

(Action for Life, 2007)
Activity and the Body
“was just a class discussion activity levels were reduced”

"activity levels sacrificed when discussing HRF and PRF"

Opportunity to be active
Opportunity to educate the students about PA.

Both of which set the foundations for lifelong physical activity.
(Harris 2000)

PE provides a unique opportunity to integrate both physical and educational experiences

(Kirk et al. 2004)

PE is extremely important in increasing the amount of PA for adolescence

A quality PE class should keep students active for most of the class while providing educational activities
HRA is seen as part of and integral to all PE experiences.
Educate students physical activities can become part of an active lifestyle.

HRA may become lost
Overload with information.
Doesn’t become lost
Gives HRA value and status

May be seen in isolation
Long gaps between delivery
May reduce activity levels
Focused HRA
HRA Integration

Deirdre's class:
“The class had a specific fitness focus throughout from warm up to cool down”

Aisleen’s Class:
“it was constantly drip fed to the students throughout the lesson through questioning and short tasks”
Focused or permeated ?

Action for life produced by Irish heart foundation and the junior cycle physical education support service (2007),Health related activity resource for junior cycle physical education.

Graham, G (2002). Teaching children physical education: Becoming a master teacher. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Harris, J. (2000). Health Related Exercise in the National Curriculum: Key Stages 1 to 4. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Harris, J. (2000a). Health Related Exercise in the National Curriculum: Key Stages 1 to 4. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Fairclough, S., Stratton, G. and Baldwin, G. (2002) The contribution of secondary school physical education to lifetime physical activity. European Physical Education Review, Vol. 8(1): 69-84.

Harris, J. (2010). Health-related physical education. In: Bailey, R Physical education for learning a guide for secondary schools. London: Continuum international publishing group. pp.26-36.

Kirk,D.,Burgess-Limerick,R.,Kiss. and M.,Lahey,J.(2004)Senior physical education: An integrated approach 2nd edition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

McKenzie, T.L.. (2003). Health-Related Physical Education: Physical Activity, Fitness and Wellness. In: Silverman, S.J. and Ennis, C.D.Student Learning in Physical Education: Applying Research to Enhance Instruction. 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. pg.207

Students view: “2-3 times a week”

moderately active 60 minutes EVERY day

Students are not reaching these recommendations
Activity levels
Interrupted Activity Levels or Learning ?
HRA is thought through the PE activities i.e. HRA through gymnastics
Permeated HRA
This approach involves teaching HRA through specific focused units.
Focused HRA
How it was Incorporated:
"Incorporated the F.I.T.T principles"

From Literature:
“Altering physical activity patterns in children is – at least conceptually – simpler then altering physical fitness by engaging in a training program with variations" (Rowland, 1996)
Introduction to the Principles of Training
“ teaching students to self-test gives them opportunities to demonstrate the behaviors they’ll need to create their own effective physical activity programs throughout” (NASPE, 2005)
“Give students the practice experience they need to feel confident in their abilities to apply the tests and seek improvements in real life” (NASPE, 2005)

Cognitive= ????

Affective= ?????
“Sure I’m not fit, I don’t need to
run laps to know that”
“I can’t run”
“this is stupid”
“why do we have to do this”
“this is punishment”
Students comments
Running as many laps as you can in 6 minutes

Mile run : running 1 mile all students let off at the same time to run against the clock. Students are advised to go as fast as you can for as long as you can

Bleep test : running against a recording of beeps which speed up through sets of beeps
Fitness tests used in schools

Aviva Health’s Schools’ Fitness Challenge.

Professor Moyna in DCU and Dr. Sarah Kelly (will assess results)
Fitness Testing
Major Findings
Research for HRA
Research for HRA
Some of the strands of P.E. including HRA are largely being ignored in schools (CSPPA, 2010)

An evaluation of how the strands of physical education are being taught is necessary to evaluate the validation of these findings comprehensively in Irish schools
Research for HRA
Currently there is no educational policy for schools that states that they need to adhere to all strands of P.E. including HRA (CSPPA, 2010)

The creation of an education policy would ensure a full physical education curriculum consisting of the seven strands including HRA (Sallis et al., 1999)
(Ward et al. 2007)
(Action for life 2007)
(Harris 2000)
(Harris 2000)
(Harris 2000)
(Harris 2000)
Activity levels were reduced as a result of integrating HRA overall
This was most prevalent with Activity and the body

Principles of Training was the only element that was largely unaffected

Learning was unaffected by HRA in the lessons
From our findings HRA lowered activity levels in the class but learning levels remained largely unaffected

Despite lowered activity levels, the benefits of HRA implementation such as the promotion of lifetime affiliation with PA may compensate for this (Welk et al., 2006)
Permeated HRA
Fitness Testing in Schools
Fitness testing was present in all findings
Fitness Testing in Schools
Fitness testing was present in all findings

The purpose of fitness testing in the curriculum:
Laura's Lesson -
"a form of of assessment and can motivate students to increase PA"

Paul's Lesson -
"Assess levels after an intervention has been placed such as a program for increasing cardiovascular fitness"
Encouragement for Physical Activity outside of the School
In our overall findings, encouragement for physical activity outside of the school was present

Examples of this include:

Aisleen's lesson -
"Students encouraged to join teams"
Laura's lesson -
"Discussed PA recommendation and told students they should be involved in upcoming sports day"
Deirdre's lesson -
"Students took responsibility by setting outcomes and keeping a physical activity diary"
Examples of relevance;
Deirdre's lesson “ Empowering students in activity”

From literature;
NASPE finds that health-related fitness looks to help people who find physical activity as important and enjoyable lifelong safe adventure
Incorporated in;
Laura's lesson “ In warm up she stretched muscles specifically to tag rugby e.g. Hamstring”

From literature;
Graham (1992) highlights the importance of incorporating HRA as it gives ‘Instant activity’ to the students also developing the understanding of HRA.
Examples of relevance;
Fionn’s lesson “Got all the girls involved and there was a great atmosphere and 100%participation”

From literature;
“NASPE (2005) agrees that students get pleasure out of PA, therefore HRA should be applied as much as possible”
Incorporated in;
Laura's lesson “ Extensive warm-up and cool-down given with questioning throughout”

From literature;
NAPSPE suggests it is important to introduce HRA into the warm up/cool down through correct instruction laying down a strong foundation before advancing on PA
Incorporated in;
Fionns lesson “Teaming it up with exercises to work on the run in relay and leg muscles in the body”

From literature;
Fairclough et.al (2005) states that Health Related Fitness improves your well being. Putting more significance on HRA
Examples of relevance;
Aisleen’s lesson “How the body system you are currently using during this activity is affected by exercise eg. Heart”

From literature;
Harrie (2002) believes the experience gained from HRA, helps with lifelong involvement in PA
Incorporated in;
Fionn's lesson “Relevant to the class and muscles which were used consistently in Ultimate were highlighted”

From literature;
NASPE (2005) state that students must be acknowledge the risks of a sedentary lifestyle and the significance of being aware of benefits of getting enough physical activity, therefore is more relevant to health
Introduction to Principles of Training
Health Related Fitness
Examples of relevance;
Aisleens lesson “Through various activities linked with rounders eg. Throwing using various balls to improve the throwing action”

From literature;
Warburton (2013) finds the key role of the inclusion of HRA, as has an improvement effect on social, emotional and physical wellness
Health Benefits
Incorporated in;
Laura's lesson “ Teacher led discussion about what aspects of PA they enjoyed and linked to self-esteem and lifelong PA”

From literature;
McKenzie (2003) highlights that importance of health and well-being for students
Incorporated in;
Laura's lesson “ Took pulse rate before class started”
Fionn’s lesson “Muscles which were used consistently in ultimate were highlighted”

From literature;
NASPE (2005) highlights that the basic running biomechanics and other techniques should be mastered that students to prevent injury, ensuring there physical activity is prolonged

Priority Average = 4.8
Introduction to Principles of Training
Warm-up and Cool down
Not at all relevant Extremely relevant 1 2 3 4 5
Warm-up and Cool Down
Priority Average = 3.1
Warm up and Cool down
Not at all relevant Extremely relevant 1 2 3 4 5
Health Related Fitness
Not at all relevant

Extremely relevant 1 2
4 5
Health Benefits
Priority Average = 2.5
Health Benefits
Activity and the Body

Not at all relevant Extremely Relevant
1 2

Activity and the body
Priority average 1.6
Activity and the body
Priority Level
(1 highest; 5 Lowest)

Not at all relevant Extremely relevant 1
3 4 5
Introduction to Principles of Training
Priority Average = 2.8
Health Related Fitness
HRA Integration - Permeated, Focused, and Absent
The majority of HRA integration was Permeated (18) with Focused being less prevalent (6)
Reference List:
HRA Integration - Permeated, Focused, and Absent
From our
, integration for HRA was most present when it was coupled with activities in the
rather than solely focused

An example of this is:
Paul's lesson -
"The pulse check was integrated directly into the lesson during the warm-up and used in other activities after"
This is as opposed to a focused integration such as circuits for the Health-Related fitness element
Priority Average
Activity and the Body was the lowest priority average at 1.6.
Principles of Training was the highest at 4.8
National association for sport and physical education (2005).Physical education for lifelong fitness :The physical best teachers guide,2nd edition.Champaign,IL:Human kinetics

Pate R., Michael G. Davis, Thomas N. Robinson, Elaine J. Stone, Thomas L. McKenzie, and Judith C. Young, 2006, Promoting Physical Activity in Children and Youth: A Leadership Role for Schools: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism (Physical Activity Committee) in Collaboration With the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young and Cardiovascular Nursing, Circulation;114:1214-1224,

Rowland,T.W.(1996). Developmental exercise physiology.Champaign,IL:Human Kinetics.

Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Kolody B, Lewis M, Marshall S, Rosengard P., Effects of health-related physical education on academic achievement: project SPARK, Res Q Exercise Sport. 1999 Jun; 70(2):127-34

Warburton, D. et al. (2013) Health Benefits of Physical Activity; The evidence . Canadian Medical Association , 174 (6) NAPSEWard,D.,Saunders,R and Pate,R.(2007)Physical activity interventions in children and adolescents: physical activity intervention series. Champaign.IL: Human Kinetics.

Welk G.J., Eisenmann J., Dollman J., Health-related physical activity in children and adolescents: a bio-behavioural perspective in: Kirk D., MacDonald D., O’Sullivan M., Handbook of physical education, SAGE Publications, 2006, pp.665-684
Spotlight Report - Oireachtas 2011
Woods, C.B., Tannehill D., Quinlan, A., Moyna, N. and Walsh, J. (2010). The Children’s Sport Participation and Physical Activity Study (CSPPA). Research Report No 1. School of Health and Human Performance, Dublin City University and the Irish Sports Council, Dublin, Ireland
Encouragement for Physical Activity outside of the School
Different strategies to encourage physical activity outside of the school include:

Certification of coaches and teacher coaches through foundation and development programs coordinated with clubs (Pate et al., 2006, p.1220)

The promotion of club, team, and community physical activity programs through sampling and school-club coordination (Pate et al., 2006, p.1220)
Armstrong, N. 1989. Is fitness testing either valid or useful? British Journal of Physical Education 20:

Armstrong, N., and J.Welsman. 1997. Young people and physical activity. Oxford: Oxford University

Cureton, K.J. 1994. Physical fitness and activity standards for youth. In Health and fitness
through physical education, ed. R.R. Pate and R.C. Hohn, 129–36. Champaign, IL: Human

Cale, L., and J. Harris. 2005. Exercise and young people. Issues, implications and initiatives.
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Freedson, P.S., K.J. Cureton, and W. Heath. 2000. Status of field-based fitness testing in children and
youth. Preventive Medicine 31 (supplement): S77–S85.
Harris, J. 1995. Physical education – a picture of health? The British Journal of Physical Education
26, no. 4: 25–32.

Hopple, C., and G. Graham. 1995. What children think, feel and know about physical fitness testing.
Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 14, no. 4: 408–17.

Keating, X.D. 2003. The current often implemented fitness tests in physical education programs:
Problems and future directions. Quest 55: 141–60.
Pate, R.R. 1994. Fitness testing: Current approaches and purposes in physical education. In Health
and fitness through physical education, ed. R.R. Pate and R.C. Hohn, 119–27. Champaign,
IL: Human Kinetics.

Whitehead, J.R., C.L. Pemberton, and C.B. Corbin. 1990. Perspectives on the physical fitness
testing of children: The case for a realistic educational approach. Pediatric Exercise Science 2:
Worrell,V., Evans-Fletcher,C., Kovar,S.,2013. Assessing the Cognitive and Affective Progress of
Children, Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance
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