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Copy of The Development and Organisation of (Sport name) in the UK (P1,M1)
Transcript of Copy of The Development and Organisation of (Sport name) in the UK (P1,M1)
P1 Describe the development and organisation of a selected sport in the UK
M1 Explain the development and organisation of a selected sport in the UK NAME: Hannah Smith
SPORT: Football Pre-Industrial In the 1700s and the early 1800s, pre-industrial people lived in rural areas dominated by agriculture, small villages that had been a family tradition for years before continued, people were restricted to there village due to lack of transportation, the only way to escape was walk or travel by horse which was diffcult as walking was dangerous and horses were only owned by the upper class, who had a better life in the villages compared to them off lower class who worked from sunrise to sunset seven days a week unless church was assigned on the sunday then they would be required to go or suffer brutal Sacrifices, the only other reason for not having to work was given holidays or holy days. Men were the bread winners carrying out their jobs of mostly farming and labouring jobs for the lower class and farm or drinking house owners were roles for the upper class. Women stayed home doing household chores such as; cooking, cleaning and looking after their children, houses were full with a large family boys would follow in their fathers foot steps while girls did the same, it would be from a very young age of about 12 when they would be sent to work. preparing for when the men of the house would return home was a vital role for women, the majority of the time the men would attend the villages drinking house after work and return home to beat their wives. The Drinking House 1700s- 1800s 2000s 1900s The 1800’s drinking house was the heart of village life it was the focus for leisure activities for the community, during holidays and any free time which was not a lot during the pre industrial era people mainly men of the villages would take pleasure of going to a drinking house were activities were set up from the landlord who watched over the games and brought some organsation to the activites by arranging the matches, book keeping and taking bets. some of the activities carried out was cockfighting, bare knuckle fighting and dog fighting were some of the activites people could gamble on and try to win money but they could also lose at the same time, there was no age limit on the gambling. Pre Industrial Sports as mentioned drinking houses was a place were people gathered to gamble and participate in sports such as knuckle fighting with one rule only murder was not acceptable and if it was to happen then the opponent faced consequences. On holy days such as may days and festivals provided time for the people of the village to gather and have fun including the women who would particpate in may-pole an activity in which the women danced around a pole and sang. however most of the sporting activies were aimed at the men who would take part in archery, fencing and fighting, these were classed as mililtary sports and help adapt the mens fighting skills in case it was needed. They were also provided with the oppertunity to hunt rabbits, deers and foxes and present it to their family as a treat. Upper class people would take part in a more organsied no contact sports called lawn tennis whereas lower class would play mob footbal which was a lot more phyiscal Mob Football The game did not have a limit on the number of players on each side and often ended up with villages playing against other villages on days if festivals, the only accteption to stopping the game due to a foul being commited was murder other than that the particpants could kick and batter each other in relation to moving the ball from one villege to the other to win the game, it could last for hours as there was no boundaires to where the game could go.
Mob football was played by the lower class as it was to violent for upper class people, it was a cheap sports as the only equipment needed was pigs bladder and a leather casing to for a ball, the upper class disliked mob football as it often resulted in serious injuries towards their workers and therfore prevent them from working Industrial Revolation the pre industrial revolation happened during 1800s -1900s, it was a dramtic change in history, life would no longer be basic farming and living! inventions were produced which developed new industries which changed the way people lived and worked forever. agricultural was tranforming rapidly into manufacuting socity, canels and roads improved transportation which increased a wider market both domestic and overseas. Mines, mills and factories were built with this came goods of all kinds, but such as; textiles, iron goods, metal and pottery, creating more employment forcing the villages to pack up and move closer to factories which begin to form the cities, life was no longer full of space but instead people lived extremely close together and some even shared houses, it was not open free air anymore but one full of dust and continous noise from the factories and wide mass of people which it was said that Britians population nearly doubled. draining systems were not correctly as of yet which meant people went the toliet and got rid of the waste by throwing it out of the window resulting in a lot of illnesses.
working long hours took away any chance of finding pleasure in sporting activties or socialising, working 14 or 15 hours a day in a factory, there was little time left for anything other than eating and sleeping. the cities were now cramped leaveing little room for sports to be played. It was only on special occassions such as; holidays and festivals that people could indugle in sports, upper class had more time on their hands and played games such as; cricket and tennis and with more transport present travelling was poosibale to play agaisnt other cities. however the lower class where fobidded to play sports such as; ashborn football as it was a voilent sports and if played could damage the cities businesses . Sports In The Industrial Revolation Due to the move from rural life to urban life brought an increase to the number of families who could now afford to send their children to public schools, the pre industrial revolation had created an new class known as the middle class, young boys between the ages of 13- 18 were sent away to public schools such as; Eton, arlborough, Lancing, Uppingham, Malvern and Rugby to furfill a better education for themselves. However life at public school was at times tough as the younger new boys were often accommodated with the older boys who seen this as an oppertunity to bully both phyiscal and verbal the younger boys into fagging for them, a role which consisted of carrying out jobs for the elder boys. The younger boys often stuck together and helped each other out.
Living conditiond within the public schools were better than them of outside life as they were very hygienic with regular checks carried out, the boys were waited on, sheets and clothing washed daily with meals cooked for them, they had a small role of ensuring the domartories were clean. The schools where located out of the cramped cities and therefore prevented breathing in consistance smoke from the factoiries and provided open space to engage in sporting activites which was done during breaks in between classes, the schools ere strict and tough on the boys but in forced discipline and structure into their lives Public School Life Public School Headmasters Ethos & Sports During the 19th century the popularity of sport was increased due to fascination towards Muscular Christianity. The head master of Rugby public school Thomas Arnold was highly driven by this form of motivation as he was aware of the boys enthusiasm towards sport and used this to develop their discilpine as the sports would force them obey rules, show leadership and teamwork and as a result Arnold would have the boys build friendships though the sports and bring about respect towards each other removing bullying from the school. Arnold shocked staff members with his new approach towards teaching the boys, as he had a more calm and collective manner enforcing pastrol care and love to the boys to create a more friendly atomshpere. Public School Sports (rugby) The boys was sent to public schools from different parts of the country and had different versions of many popular games. The boys soon realised that if they were to play these games continously then rules had to be included although there was still room for improvments for example; the younger boys where allowed to play with the older in the violent sports (rugby) leaving them more prone to injury. However the games had advanced from the pre industrial sports and in the industrial cities as the rules of these games were influenced by the type of facilities available at schools during this era, time limit to when the game ends was inflicted by the school bell, there was now boundaires of were the players could go due to the grounds of the school, teams were now more distinctive as they were divided by school houses which was a different hat or top but there was along way to advanced to reach todays rugbay and football games. Public School Other Sports Within public schools gambling and drinking from a young age was taken from home life and brought to the public schools, were the boys would bet however now it would be on horse racing rather than cock fighting or knukle fighting, they were middle class boys who had money looking for entertainment and ways to spend their money! Other sports carried out was hunting and cross country again as the school was out in the open this provided the oppertunity to hunt and run free in the country, the cross country would be spread over fields including lakes and hills and the boys would race to a specific spot to win. As for the hunting the boys would hunt rabbits and hares with their hounds. The Old Boys Network and Sports For the Lower Class During the the late 18th century sports was becoming more and more popular within the urban cities and the upper and middle class businesses owners were begining to take notice of the interest towards sports and seen the physical aspects the sports could offer their workers, improving health, loyalty and drive for their workforce therefore time was directed towards playing sports meaning the workers had a day or afternoon off to participate, this generally happended on a Saturday something that has remined to this day. Other businesses followed suit which opened up the oppertunity to play competivitly between workforces it was growing into a wide spread competition due to the better availability of travel which only took hours to travel to another city, people got behind the sports to support the athletes. The rules of the sports were still unclear however teams agreed on what was allowed and continued to play. Public Schools and the set up of Football In 1862 football was very popular in public schools however each school had its owen set of rules which forbid them competing against each other, for that reason they come up with a soluation Teachers representing Shrewsbury, Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster, produced what became known as the Cambridge Rules. One participant explained what happened: "I cleared the tables and provided pens and paper... Every man brought a copy of his school rules, or knew them by heart, and our progress in framing new rules was slow." the deciding set of Cambrodge rules;
At this point it was also decided that 11 players per team playing at one time. 1. A goal is scored whenever the ball is forced through the goal and under the bar, except it be thrown by hand 2. Hands may be used only to stop a ball and place it on the ground before the feet. 3. Kicks must be aimed only at the ball. 4. A player may not kick the ball whilst in the air.
5. No tripping up or heel kicking allowed. 6. Whenever a ball is kicked beyond the side flags, it must be returned by the player who kicked it, from the spot it passed the flag line, in a straight line towards the middle of the ground. 7. When a ball is kicked behind the line of goal, it shall be kicked off from that line by one of the side whose goal it is. 8. No player may stand within six paces of the kicker when he is kicking off. 9. A player is ‘out of play’ immediately he is in front of the ball and must return behind the ball as soon as possible. If the ball is kicked by his own side past a player, he may not touch or kick it, or advance, until one of the other side has first kicked it, or one of his own side has been able to kick it on a level with, or in front of him. 10. No charging allowed when a player is ‘out of play’; that is, immediately the ball is behind him. Governing Body Football Association The Football Association was established in October, 1863. The first meeting took place at the Freeman's Tavern in London. The clubs represented at the meeting included Barnes, Blackheath, Perceval House, Kensington School, the War Office, Crystal Palace, Epping Forest, the Crusaders and No Names of Kilburn. Charterhouse also sent an observer to the meeting. Ebenezer Cobb Morley was choosen as the secretary of the FA. At on 24th November, 1863, Morley presented a draft set of rules which consisted of a combination of rules take from local football clubs, schools and universities to create the laws of football. The first ever competition was a tournament know as the challenge cup which included 15 teams but during this era players could still handle the ball and voilently injure the opponent until 1871 when the FA established new rules which removed the handling and violence by the use of a referee and umpires. By 1882 regulations were added and each member of the FA now had to have a cross bar in place to reduce arguments to whether a goal was scored. Money became a issue in 1884 when managers seen the oppertunity to better their team in order to win by bringing players to their club for a fee or paying their orignal players to focus on improving however this was controversial with teams arguing which was eventually brought to the FA's attention and in 1885 it was dicided player could be paid but had to live within the region of the teams home and by 1900 football was a professional occupation with each player being credited for their particpation, a century on and football is now the most watched game in history and the richest sports to date although time and inflation has increased the value of money athletes in this aspect or paid extreme amounts of money due to the popularity
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Ffa.htm 1. The maximum length of the ground shall be 200 yards, the maximum breadth shall be 100 yards, the length and breadth shall be marked off with flags; and the goal shall be defined by two upright posts, eight yards apart, without any tape or bar across them.
2. A toss for goals shall take place, and the game shall be commenced by a place kick from the centre of the ground by the side losing the toss for goals; the other side shall not approach within 10 yards of the ball until it is kicked off.
3. After a goal is won, the losing side shall be entitled to kick off, and the two sides shall change goals after each goal is won.
4. A goal shall be won when the ball passes between the goal-posts or over the space between the goal-posts (at whatever height), not being thrown, knocked on, or carried.
5. When the ball is in touch, the first player who touches it shall throw it from the point on the boundary line where it left the ground in a direction at right angles with the boundary line, and the ball shall not be in play until it has touched the ground.
6. When a player has kicked the ball, any one of the same side who is nearer to the opponent's goal line is out of play, and may not touch the ball himself, nor in any way whatever prevent any other player from doing so, until he is in play; but no player is out of play when the ball is kicked off from behind the goal line.
7. In case the ball goes behind the goal line, if a player on the side to whom the goal belongs first touches the ball, one of his side shall he entitled to a free kick from the goal line at the point opposite the place where the ball shall be touched. If a player of the opposite side first touches the ball, one of his side shall be entitled to a free kick at the goal only from a point 15 yards outside the goal line, opposite the place where the ball is touched, the opposing side standing within their goal line until he has had his kick.
8. If a player makes a fair catch, he shall be entitled to a free kick, providing he claims it by making a mark with his heel at once; and in order to take such kick he may go back as far as he pleases, and no player on the opposite side shall advance beyond his mark until he has kicked.
9. No player shall run with the ball.
10. Neither tripping nor hacking shall be allowed, and no player shall use his hands to hold or push his adversary.
11. A player shall not be allowed to throw the ball or pass it to another with his hands.
12. No player shall be allowed to take the ball from the ground with his hands under any pretence whatever while it is in play.
13. No player shall be allowed to wear projecting nails, iron plates, or gutta-percha on the soles or heels of his boots.
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Fpublic.htm The first offical rules of football set by the FA The Boer War (1899-1902) The Start of the NHS 1948 CCPR 1935 The Boer war was a battle of conflict between the Dutch and British nations, fighting over resources and control in the South Africa and later involved the native population, it also developed further as gold, silver and diamonds was discovered within South Africa which added to the drama of wanting to take control of the region. The war began on October 11th 1899 and the war had cost around 75,000 lives, 22,000 British soldiers killed in battle and 13,000 through diseases. Concentarion camps was set up for the women and children of Boer but the argue to why this was done is questioned some say it was to created for comfort and saftey while others will argue it was to keep them isolated as the death toll was high approximately 28,000 Boer women and children due to bad living conditions. The war was not always in Britains favour as they were seen to be struggling to begin with and the blame was throw upon the working class soliders as they were consider physically unfit from the upper class commander which would be the cause of deafeat therefore state schools introduced physical activity in their curriculum. However the war was eventually won by the British as the civilans were outnumbered leaving them to surrendered and a peace treaty was produced which instructed no further punishment would be taken allowing them to continue living in their homes and keeping their beliefs at heart the dutch language would remain. Finally Britain would have to pay 3 million for damage fees but Britain had fully control of Transvaal and Orange Free State.
"http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml The National Health Service was founded on July 5, 1948 with the motto 'Free to all who wants it' offering hostipals, speical services,medicines, drugs, dental and eye care. It was now a national business no longer independant and costly, doctors and nurses formed together to create the NHS which continued to expend increasing the demand of empolyment for that reason schools followed a stricter curriculum to ehcance the students knowledege pushing them in the direction of contiuing their studies further and giving back to Britain through needed jobs such as; doctors, nurses, teachers. State Schools Children followed set patterns of behaviour called drills. Lessons were based on the four 'R's - reading, 'riting, religion and 'rithmetic. After the 1870 Education Act many schools were taken over by the government to become Board Schools. Education became free for all children in 1891. Physical Education was introduced to schools after the Boer war as Britain was said to have had a bad perfomrance physically, so millatry drills were done along with sports as it was known to increase reaction time, co-ordination, speed, power, decision making etc making it enjoyable for the students but also making Britains defensive stronger. Between 1939 to 1945 the military drills transformed into gymnastics to increase the childrens health. Central Council Physical Recreation began in 1935 and is the organisation for the national governing such as; the FA, Netball England, LTA and RFU, its duty is to promote, protect and develop the interests of sport and physical recreation at all levels (foundation, Participation, Preformance and Elite). CCPR campaigns to bring sporting competitions to England such as; the rugby world cup in 2015 or the 2018 Football world cup. CCPR is also the representative of 280 bodies of sport and recreation in the UK such as; Sports England were it provides a helping hand to ensure the lottery funds is distributed in the correct manner, it is continuously working towards improving and developing talent. Sports England Sports England is a national governing body with the main priority of helping people and communities across England to create a sporting tradition and legacy by creating more facilities and equipment. It provides new opportunities for young people in disadvantaged areas intoducing them to more oppertunities for along with identifying and naturing talented individuals to success. £450 million is being pumped into education colleges as well as funding for county sports partnerships, coaching, volunteering and disability to encourage further participation UK Sports Uk sport was established in 1997 with a 100 million pound invesment each year from the National Lottery and the Exchequer with team 2012 adding to fund Britain’s best Olympic and Paralympic sports and athletes to ehnace their chances of success on the world stage, it is currently responseable for around 1,200 athletes across 47 Olympic and Paralympic sports, providing them with the best possible equipment and facilities to improve Britains chances of winning gold at Olympic games. UK Sports is also heavily involved in co-ordinating, bidding and staging major sporting events in the UK investing 3.5 million a year to this cause, Around £16 million will be invested in the 09-12 programme which has been specifically developed to help prepare the UK for hosting the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2012. This programme will not only provide British athletes with valuable experience of competing on home soil ahead of London 2012. A brilliant outcome for UK sports as this is one of the biggest competitions the UK can hold and with Uk sports objectives at heart they have achieved an excellent result of bringing the competition home and no doubt they will encourage and influence the nation to get behind these athletes and increase the participation into athletic sports. The FA's Responsibilities Today The FA today works with all levels of the performance pyramid triangle from foundation to introduce the public into football ensuring it remains in high profile it does this by providing soccer camps and coaching into schools and community centres to influence football to the public. Participation is the next stage which sees local clubs set up to develop football skills further hoping to keep people interested within the sports and seek to continue their participation. Next is performance which is when talented athletes of the sports emerge higher within game, coaching and facilities become more enhanced hoping to push the player forward into the elite stages. Finally is elite level this is the highest ranking within the football world it the production of excellent athletes looking to set an example to future participates by demonstrating their talent. The FA continues to seek improvements with in the game by continuing to analysis the current game and look for areas of development. Also the FA works closely to ensure the rules of the game are followed orderly and each players, official and referee are protected this is done by fines given to rule breaking and misconduct. For example recently Sunderland were handed a £30,000 fine by the Football Association after a misconduct charge was found to be proven, the charge related to the conduct of the Sunderland players towards referee Phil Dowd during the 3-3 draw at Manchester City on March 31. http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/football/premier-league/sunderland-fined-by-fa-over-conduct-of-players-7665571.html fines like this ensure other participants pay attention and understand if they break the rules then consequences are eligible. The FA Working with Sports England The FA Tesco Skills programme, which is receiving £6 million from Sport England as part of our long term commitment to helping grow grassroots football, has already provided two million places on football skills courses for five-to-11 year olds. The programme’s emphasis is on developing core skills and building confidence in a fun and exciting environment. http://www.sportengland.org/about_us/our_news/fa_tesco_skills_expansion.aspx This link between Sports England and the FA shows how Sports England have backed the FA to develop football in England and get more youngsters participating into sports by finically backing them to succeeded, this enables the FA to better their equipment, facilities and coaching providing the participants with an better experience. The FA Working With UK Sports UK Sport has worked proactively with a number of partners to promote the value of sport, its inherent value and how it can contribute to changing people’s lives.
One of UK sports partners, the Football Association (FA), FOOTBALL IS one of the biggest participation sports in the world, played officially in 204 countries.
UK Sport is represented on the committee that allocates some £1 million of funding to the FA’s International Development Programme, which has assisted 26 projects in 90 countrieshttp://www.uksport.gov.uk/news/170. With the spupport provided by Uk Sports the FA can adventure further to influence football to other country and participants that may not have the money to generate equipment and execellent coaching to the public. The FA working with CCPR The CCPR works with the FA to make the FA's life easier in regards to decision making for example backing the sports looking to promote certain campaigns to increase number of participants getting involved in football by ensuring it is largly publicised. The CCPR also helps when it comes to government proposals ensuring the FA is fully aware of what is happening