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Emily Spero

on 29 June 2013

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Transcript of MIND MAP

Language Acquisition
Language acquisition represents unconscious learning, which takes place when attention is focused on meaning rather then language form.
Language Acquisition 1 (L1)
B. F. Skinner - Behaviourism / Imitation = Habit
Behaviourism focuses on the external behaviour of the student. The behaviour is reinforced through repetition of desired actions, rewards for good behaviour and discouragement of bad behaviour.
B. F. Skinner
Language Acquisition 2 (L2)
L2 refers to process by which people learn a second language. This process also refers to the learning of third or more languages. It also refers to what learners do to learn the language.
Lightbown, P., & Spada, N. M. (2006). How languages are learned. (3rd ed., pp. 201-202). New York: Oxford University Press, USA.
(Lightbown & Spada, 2006)
(Lightbown & Spada, 2006)
Language acquisition is a process that begins at birth, with crying. Humans acquire the ability to perceive and comprehend language. This includes the ability to use words to create sentences to be able to communicate. There are several theorists that have offered explanations for how languages are learned, such as Vygotsky, Skinner, and Chomsky.
Noam Chomsky - Innatist / Intrinsic, Natural
Vygotsky and Piaget - Social Interaction / Community Synergy
Zone of Proximal development (ZPD) is the difference of what a student can do with and without help. Vygotsky observed that conservations that students have with adults and with other students are the origins of language and thought.
Vygotsky / Piaget
L2 -Even in L2, this theory promotes a highly interactive language lesson. The ZPD has the same impact no matter what language is being taught.
Problems with the Theory
- Children who do little overt imitation seem to acquire language as rapidly and fully as children who imitate regularly.
- Behaviourism seems to overgeneralize the process of language acquisition.
- Imitation is not always based on environment, although the environment can influnence the type of imitation.
- complex language rules must be learned can not just be imitated
- grammer is another thing that needs to be learned not just imitated
Examples of Theory
When children begin to talk and reproduce the language that others are using, this is a positive reinforcement for language, because their language would be praised by parents for successful communication.
Implications for Language teaching
Form Focus-Feedback is essential to further learning. Students should be praised for accomplishments and given direct guidance when errors are made
Content Based- This theory requires that the teacher directly teach new concepts and skills. Constant assessmnet must be done so that the teacher can guide students to next steps when ready.

Problems with the Theories
- these theories are very dependent on an adult to provide children with the social or environmental situations where they can learn
Implications for Language Teaching
Form Focus- Language use and development must be scaffolded. The ZPD will help students to expand their understanding of language while listening.
Content Based- Thorough, clear explanations of instructions. If a student makes a mistake, read/ repeat their answer so that student will be able to identify their own errors. This theory also promotes a highly interactive language lesson
Implications for Language Teaching
Form Focus- The environment is not nearly as important as how students interact with the language in class. THe Classroom needs to promote language use and practice
Content Based- Cooperative learning and social interactions are key. This theory suggests that language will develop innately therefore students need ample time to practice. Word Walls and manipulatives should be used to immerse students in language.
Problems with the Theory
- Grammar rules are very complicated, and must be learned.
Examples of the Theory
This theory states that children would just know how to form a grammatically correct sentence, for example:
John saw himself rather then himself saw John.
Relationship between L1 and L2
Noam Chomsky
Chomsky only argued for L1, however his theory of UG has been applied by others to L2. It has been argued that UG offers the best perspective to understand L2, others disagree.
Relationship between L1 and L2
Relationship between L1 and L2
Vygotsky's theory of interaction can be applied no matter what language is being taught. The ZPD can have the same impact on language development regardless of whtehr it is L1 or L2. This means that the same teaching strategies can be used.
The impact of listening on language development, as well as active use of language can help increase fluency.
This theory states that the quality and quantity of the language a child hears, and the consistency of reinforcement is important to shape the language behaviour of children. Behaviourism gives an importance to the environment because that is where the child will begin to learn language and the type of language that the child will learn.
Behaviourists view imitation and practice as the primary process in Language development for children.
- imitation - word for word repetition of someone else's speech
- practice - repetitive manipulation of form
Behaviour is something that is conditioned and learned. Like language, behaviour can be influenced by the consequences on certain behaviours. Appropriate language can be positively rewarded.
B. F. Skinner
B. F. Skinner was born in 1904 and died in 1990. He invented the operent conditioning chamber, radical behavioursim and made major advancements in the field of psychology. Skinner was also highly recognized for his influential work on reinforcement and outcomes on behaviour and learning.
Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky was born in 1928. He is considered to be the father of modern linguistics and a major figure in analytical philosophy. Noam is the creater of the Chomsky hierarchy, universal grammar theory. Noam was also a part of the innatist perspective in the study of language.
He thought that children were wired with a template of human languages in other words a Universal Grammar (UG). UG would allow children to understand how their language system works. Thus children would be able to understand grammar and be grammatically correct rather then grammar being taught.
- the UG does not explain the process of acquisition, it just states that children have a template.
- what influence does the child's environment have
- grammar can not be learned through practice or imitation

- the innatist perspective states that all children can acquire their native language, however it does not explain how students with exceptionalities acquire language.
Chomsky challenged the behaviourist explanation for language acquisition. Instead, he argued that children are biologically programmed for language, and that it just develops in children
Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) is that humans are genetically programmed to acquire certain kinds of knowledge and skills at specfic times in life. It states that children who are not given access to language and remain isloated from it will never acquire the language skills.
- does nature or nurture affect CPH or UG, does it have no affect, it is not exlpained
Lev Vyotsky
Lev was born in 1896 and died in 1934.
His main work was in developmental psychology. During his life his theories were very controversial. They were introduced to Western countries and used in educational psychology.
Lev was apart of creating the Zone of Proximal Development, the way in which acquisition of learning is acquired.
Jean Piaget
Jean was born in 1896 and died in 1980. Piaget had a theory of cognitive development. He also placed great importance on the education of children.
The two philosophers views differ on language acquisition.
For Vygotsky internalized speech emgeres through social interations, with people who know more then you do, on a given topic, thus the student can always be learning from someone.
For Piaget language is built on their cognitive development because it is how they would use language, Language is a symbol system developed in childhood. Also language is acquired through physical interaction with the environment.
Thus the major difference with these two philiosophers is the importance of environment versus the importance of communication with others.
- students will acquire more language in social situations, like play dates, and through conversations with adults.
- students will acquire their language system with more interactions with the environment and a variety of environments.
- encouragement and support must be given to child for socialization to happen
- some skills may not develop
- finally the students may not have accountable talk in a classroom setting, and it takes the ownership away from the student.
Language Acquisition Theories
Habit begins to form
Behaviourism had a powerful influence on learning a second language because audiolingual teaching becomes more important. Behaviourism is often linked to Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis (CAH).
CAH states that where the two languages are similar the learner will pick up the new language much easier, thus where the language differs they will have difficulties. It is found though that the errors are not this predictable. The other problem is when the language is translated back into L1 it may not be grammatically correct.
L1 seems to focus more on the habits of the learner, but when learning a second language you can not just simply transfer the habits you have learned, instead the learner must learn the nuances of the L2.
For some learners who have passed the "critical" period according to Chomsky would have a harder time learning a second language. Thus it would be better if the UG was the same availability and access to nature one someone is trying to learn a second language. Some others agrue that the UG is available and present however the same nature that L1 is learned in, is not available.
Thus the knowledge must be available to everyone, however the UG is different for different languages.
Chomsky did not relate his principle to L2.
L2 -
L2 -
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