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EYELID AND ITS CLINICAL ANATOMY

NORMAL SYSTEMS PRESENTATION
by

Adrija Basu

on 21 September 2012

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Transcript of EYELID AND ITS CLINICAL ANATOMY

Image [3]: Muscles of the eyelid Muscles of the Eyelid Images [4, 5]: Dermatitis of the eyelid Reconstructive eyelid surgery
Subcutaneous tissue consists of loose connective tissue
Eyelid dermatitis is the inflammation of the eyelid skin Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue [3] Table [3]: Function of various anatomical features of the eyelid and eye Image [3]: Surface Anatomy of the left eyelid Surface Anatomy [3] Image [1]: Anatomy of the Eyelid Structure of upper and lower eyelids is similar, made of 4 layers:
Skin
Orbicularis muscle - layer of dense skeletal muscle
Tarsal plate - plate of dense fibroelastic tissue
Conjunctiva
Within layers are various types of glands:
Meibomian glands - sebaceous , secretes lipid-rich substance that delays evaporation of the tear film that lubricates and protects the cornea
Glands of Zeis - small sebaceous glands associated with eyelashes
Glands of Moll - apocrine sweat glands at the margin of the eyelid
Glands of Krause - accessory lacrimal glands in the fornix of the conjunctiva
Glands of Wolfring – accessory lacrimal glands just above the tarsal plate Overview of Anatomy [1] Anatomy – External Landmarks, Muscles, Innervation, Blood Supply and Lymphatics
Physiology and Biochemistry
Clinical Significance
Pathology affecting the Eyelid
Eyelid Reconstruction Surgery – Case Study Introduction Protection from mechanical injury
Light regulation
Maintenance of the film of tears over the retina
Gas exchange for the cornea
Provides pumping action for tear flow
Provides moist chamber for conjunctiva and cornea
Protection of the cornea and conjunctiva from infection Function of the Eyelid [2] Adrija Basu
Normal Systems Tutorial Presentation Eyelid and its Clinical Anatomy Image [8]: Ptosis Image [7]: Entropion Image [6]: Blepharospasm Muscles of the Eyelid Image [9]: Eyelid Edema Image, Table [3]: Eyelid Supporting System with individual anatomical functions Eyelid Support System Image [10]: Location of fat pads in the eyelid Eyelid Fat Image [11]: Innervation of the eyelid Closing the eyelid = Facial Nerve
Opening the eyelid = Oculomotor nerve
Sensation of upper eyelid
Sensation of the lower eyelid
Testing of Cranial nerves III, IV and VI Innervation of the Eyelid Image [9]: Basal cell carcinoma of the left eyelid Rich lymphatic drainage
Pre-auricular lymph nodes
Submandibular nodes
Basal cell carcinomas
Benign tumours Lymphatics Image [14]: Stye Image [13]: Histology of the eyelid Histology, Biochemistry and Physiology Image [15]: Congenital diseases affecting the eyelid Ablepharon: Congenital absence of or reduction in the size of the eyelids. Congenital Pathologies of the Eyelid Reference: Mandour SS, Kakizaki H, Farahat HG, et al. Use of modified Hughes flap versus auricular cartilage graft for replacement of posterior lamella in lower eyelid reconstruction, Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 2011; 2(11):1 - 2. Image [16]: Eyelid reconstruction surgery Eyelid Reconstruction Surgery – Case Study Upper Eyelid, [homepage on the Internet]. 2012 [cited 2012 Sep 20]. Available from: Medscape, Web site: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/877079-overview
Gautum P, Adhikari RK, Sharma RK. Nepal J Ophthalmol. A profile of eye-lid conditions requiring reconstruction among the patients attending an oculoplasty clinic in mid-western region of Nepal 2011; 3(5):49 - 51.
Medical Reference Encyclopedia, [homepage on the Internet]. 2011 [cited 2012 Sep 20]. Available from: University of Maryland Medical Center, Web site: http://www.umm.edu/imagepages/19662.htm
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Bartley  GB.  The differential diagnosis and classification of eyelid retraction.  Ophthalmology.  1996;103:168–76.
Beard C. Types of ptosis. In: Beard C, ed. Ptosis. 3d ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1981:39–75.
Margo  CE, Waltz  K.  Basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid and periocular skin.  Surv Ophthalmol.  1993;38:169–92.
Mansour  AM.  Adnexal findings in AIDs.  Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg.  1993;9:273–9.
Seiff  SR, Chang  JS  Jr.  The staged management of ophthalmic complications of facial nerve palsy.  Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg.  1993;9:241–9.
Goldberg RA, Wu CU. Eyelid Anatomy Revisited: Dynamic High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Images of Whitnall's Ligament and Upper Eyelid Structures With the Use of a Surface Coil, Arch Ophthalmol 1992; 110(11):1598 - 1600.
Andersen H, Ehlers N, Matthiessen ME. Histochemistry and Development of the Human Eyelids, Acta Ophthalmologica 1965; 43(5):642 - 668.
Mohan  K, Dhir  SP, Munjal  VP, Jain  IS.  The use of intralesional steroids in the treatment of chalazion.  Ann Ophthalmol.  1986;18:158–60.
Medical Reference Encyclopedia, [homepage on the Internet]. 2011 [cited 2012 Sep 20]. Available from: University of Maryland Medical Center, Web site: http://www.umm.edu/imagepages/19662.htm
Frueh  BR, Schoengarth  LD.  Evaluation and treatment of the patient with ectropion.  Ophthalmology.  1982;89:1049–54. References Image [12]: Blood supply to the eyelid Blood Supply
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