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Iroquois Tribe


olivia bibler

on 20 November 2012

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Transcript of Iroquois Tribe

Culture Roles Festivals/Ceremonies Weapons and Tools Clothing Shelter The Iroquois lived in... Surrounding states physical features, landforms and climate Their Region The Iroquois were farming people. The women did most of the farming, planting crops of corn, beans, squash, and harvesting wild berries and herbs. Men did the hunting they hunted deer and elk, they also fished in rivers. Iroquois dishes included soups, cornbread, and stews cooked on hearths. Men wore breech cloths with long leggings. Women wore wraparound skirts with shorter leggings. The men did not originally wear shirts, but women often wore a tunic called an overdress. They wore moccasins on their feet and heavy robes in the winter. The Iroquois lived in longhouses. The longhouses in which they lived in were constructed with a vestibule at each end that was available for use by all residents. Within the body of the house, a central corridor eight feet wide separated two blanks of compartments. Each compartment , measuring about 13 feet by 6 feet, was occupied by a nuclear family.A wooden platform about a foot above the ground served as a bed by night and a chair by day; some compartments included small bunks for children. An overhead shelf held personal belongings. Every 20 feet along the central corridor, a fire pit served the two families living on it's opposite sides. Bark or hide doors at the ends of the buildings were attached at the top; these openings and the smoke holes in the roof 15 to 20 feet above each hearth provide only for ventilation. Iroquois hunters used bows and arrows. Fishermen generally used spears and fishing poles. During war, Iroquois men used their bows and arrows or fought with spears, shields, and clubs. Some other important tools included stone hand axes, wooden hoes for farming, and flint knives for skinning animals. Men were in charge of hunting ,trading,and war.Women were in charge of farming, property , and family.these different roles were reflected in Iroquois government. Iroquois clans were ruled by women, who made all the land and resource decisions for each clan.Butb the chiefs,who made military decisions and trade agreements, were always men. Only men represented the Iroquois Confederacy at the Great Council,but only women voted to determine who the representatives of each tribe would be. Both genders took part in Iroquois storytelling artwork and music, and traditional medicine. Iroquois They lived in New York. The red part is where the Iroquois lived. Some physical features are the Hudson River, Catskill Mountains, and Finger Lakes. Landforms New York has mountains and valleys, forests and rolling hills. There are little streams, and even ragging rivers with waterfalls The average annual mean temperature is 40 degrees in the Adirondacks to near 55 degrees in New York city The surrounding states are New Jersey, Pennsylvania,Vermont,Connecticut, Massachusetts and Rhode Island Surrounding bodies of water are the Pacific Ocean, Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Champlain Food Surrounding bodies of water Geographical surroundings They lived in New York by Lake Ontario and St. Lawrence River. The annual cycle consists of six regular festivals, which are still observed among the Iroquois. In addition, ceremonies are held as needed for wakes, memorial feasts, burials, adoptions, and sealing of friendships. The new year began with the Mid Winter festival, which in late January or early February when the men returned from the fall hunt. It lasted 5 days followed by another 2 to 3 days of game playing. This was a time of spiritual cleansing and renewal,and included a ritual cleaning of homes.In the spring when when the sap rose,it was time for the Thanks-To- Maple Festival. Dancers mimicked the motions of berry pickers. This one day celebration was a time to give thanks.In Augusts or early September the corn was ready to eat. To be continued... This market the Green Corn Festival, which involved ceremonies of four successive mornings. The first day included general Thanksgiving, a feather dance, and the naming of the children. Thanks was given given to the Three sisters for their help in the successful growth of crops. The last ceremony of the year, the harvest festival is one that is shared by many cultures. This is the most important time of thanksgiving. A successful harvests means property for the coming year. crafts Iroquois women made clay pots for cooking and storage. The clay pots had round bodies and raised, square collars of rims. Geometric line patterns were often etched on the collars. After the arrival of the white men, the women bartered for sturdy brass kettles to replace the clay pots. The pottery pipe is another craft that was unique to the Iroquois before the white men. The pipes were smaller than most Indian pipes and were not used as ceremonial pipes. They were just for enjoying a smoke. The bowl and stem of the pipe were made in one piece. An animal's face or some design often decorated the pipe. pgs 14-15 Daily Life past and present Bibliography We found our information in...... book Native American People The Iroquois Book The Iroquois website Native Languages of the Americas Basic Necessities Iroquois women cooked the meals, farmed, and took care of the children. Iroquois men hunted, made and repaired weapons such as arrow heads and spears, they also gathered fire wood to cook the meals. They woke up when the sun rose and went to sleep when the sun set. They still have the same daily life today. Leaders The Iroquois Confederacy, also known as the Iroquois League, was governed by the Iroquois Great Council. Each Iroquois nation sent between eight and fourteen leaders to the Great Council, where they agreed on political decisions through discussion and voting. Although these politicians were called "chiefs" they were actually called elected officials, chosen by the clan mothers of each tribe. Each individual nation also had it's own tribal council to make local decisions. This is similar to how American states each have their own government, but all are subject to the greater U.S. government. In fact, the Iroquois Confederacy was one of the examples of representative democracy used as a model by Americas founding fathers. In the Iroquois Great Council continues to meet in present day, although today most political matters are decided by the governments of the individual Iroquois nations.
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