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Case 2 Social Justice

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Michelle Joo

on 11 August 2016

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Transcript of Case 2 Social Justice


How to Counteract the 5 Faces of Oppression
Anti-Oppression Approach
Countering Exploitation
connecting historical to modern examples
connecting global to national/local examples
paying attention to student or activist movements
ex) engage students to think about the inequality between the rich/poor in Canada by comparing Occupy movements with earlier movements
(Kelly, 2012)
Countering Powerlessness
since students are placed in a position of powerlessness in the hierarchical school system:
have students create alternative interpretations of text
have students make their own artifacts (ex. protest songs)
have students design school assignments
have students contribute towards making classroom rules themselves
(Kelly, 2012)
Countering Cultural Imperialism
discuss the reasons for omissions of the less privileged in the dominant social sphere
discuss the limitation faced by those in the oppressed group
ex) create a "re-thinking" unit on Columbus to cease the false notion of the White settler benevolence in order to correctly get around the issues of colonization
(Kelly, 2012)
Countering Marginalization
Challenge texts that exclude others
Have class activities that promote inclusion
foster integration and de-streaming
Ex) Encourage ELL students to use their L1 sometimes in the classroom to instill in them the sense of belonging and reinforce their self-esteem by allowing them to share their knowledge of L1 with his/her classmates
(Kelly, 2012)
Countering Violence
discuss what is an inappropriate, exclusionary, and oppressive language and/or behavior
teach them the concept of privilege
create bonds across differences
ex) create dialogue with your students to support various kinds of movements (ex. anti-homophobia) in order teach them about fairness, respect, and equity
(Kelly, 2012)
Addressing Social Justice (Racism/Teasing) in a Primary Classroom
By Michelle, Hai Ree, Sigrid
"When you explained to Kayla's mother that her daughter has been teasing her classmate, Nikesh, about his "stinky lunches," she told you that Kayla is so "caring" at home, "always helping with her two younger brothers."

The purpose of this package is to address the issue of
intentionality

and counteracting oppression against the face of racial privilege.
Was
Kayla being purposefully racist or was she unintentionally caught up in a
system of privilege and oppression?
Social Justice in
Case 2
Social Justice in Case 2: Slide 3
Glossary: Slide 4-5
The Childhood Innocence Assumption: Slide 6
Children Interacting with Media: Slide 7
Interacting with Media and Social Cognitive Theory: Slide 8
Example of Social Cognitive Theory by Media Interpretation: Slide 9
Racial Diversity of Prime Time Characters 2003-2004: Slide 10
Selected Occupations by Race for Total Prime Time Characters 2003-2004: Slide 11
Prejudice, Stereotyping, & Discrimination: Slide 12-13
Activation of Stereotypes: Slide 14
Prejudice, Stereotype, and Discrimination and Racial Bullying in School Contexts: Slide 15
The Concept of 5 Faces of Oppression: Slide 16
Possible Manifestations of 5 Faces of Oppression in a Classroom Setting: Slide 17-18
Ways to Overcome Prejudice and Stereotypes: Slide 19
How to Counteract the 5 Faces of Oppression: Slide 20
Anti-Oppression Approaches: Slide 21-26
Traditional Approaches to Addressing Racism in a Classroom: Slide 27
Criticism of Traditional Approaches: Slide 28
Better Approaches: Anti-Racist, Anti-Bias, and Social Justice Education: Slide 29
4 Goals of Anti-Bias Education: Slide 30-35
How should you respond using the Anti-Racist Approach?: Slide 36
The Pinhead Project: Slide 37
Conclusion: Slide 38
Annotated Bibliography: Slide 39-41
Table of Contents
For decades, many teachers assume that children only see racial difference/social inequalities when society points it out to them. (Kelly & Brooks, 2009)
Assuming
childhood innocence
, that children are blind to social inequalities
However, children are
not

color blind

it is proven that infants as young as 6 months old react to racial differences (Derman-Sparks and Ramsey 2005)

Intention
→ there is a blurred line between intention and children’s predisposed meanings about social justice issues such as racism that they observe from family, peers, media, and daily societal exposure, before they even start school.
The "Childhood Innocence" Assumption
Children Interacting
with Media
Interacting with Media and Social Cognitive Theory
Example of Social Cognitive Theory
by Media Interpretation
Martins and Harrison (2012) “Racial and gender differences in the relationship between children’s television use and self esteem: A longitudinal panel study”
studied 396 White and Black preteens in elementary schools in the Midwest US over a yearlong period shows that
“children are affected when they don’t see themselves represented on TV”
and it affects them when the young people who look like them are seen doing something wrong
TV exposure directly correlated to
a decrease in self-esteem
for White and Black girls and Black boys (superhero TV shows almost always feature a
majority of white male main characters
)
Media plays an important role in shaping self-conceptions
Glossary
Source: http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2011/06/08/article-2001098-0C79A89000000578-765_468x336.jpg
Source: http://law2.wlu.edu/deptimages/journal%20of%20civil%20rights%20and%20social%20justice/Kids%202014.jpg
Social Cognitive Theory of Mass Communication

Interacting with media has the potential to create and change beliefs about racial and ethnic groups—children are
not
just passive consumers
learning occurs in a
social context
, much of what is learned is gained by
observation

Using the
social cognitive theory
framework (Bandura, 2001) suggests that learning involves not only acquiring new behaviors but
media messages may shape how children think about, act around and treat others in our society.
Media messages may shape how children think about, act around, and treat others in society
.

Four sub-processes that govern children's cognitive processes while interacting with media (Bandura 2001):
Attention
: guides observations from the media
Retention and production
: viewers must retain the behavior to use at a later time and they must have the physical and psychological ability to imitate the action (influenced by age and cognitive development)
Motivation
: Bandura argues that motivation to perform a behavior is influenced by 3 potential reinforcers- external, vicarious and self (2001)
--> Bandura's theory states that when children see behavior on media, they will interpret it and use it in an appropriate way... But
how does racial stereotyping on media affect children?
Image source: Bryant & Zillman. (2002). Media effects: Advances in theory and research, pg. 122.
Traditional Approaches to Addressing Racism In a Classroom
1) Color Blind Approach
- Emphasis on sameness of humans (being human, having emotions, able to love, feel pain or joy)
- Differences between humans (gender, skin color, language) are insignificant
- that in order to be not racist, you have to ignore the differences and consider everyone same and, thus, equal (Barton, Carreon, & Drake, 2005)
Note: We acknowledge that we did not go into detail about the color blind approach but we wanted to critique it and encourage moving away from this approach.
2) Celebration of Diversity Approach
- the "tourist curriculum"
- diversity is not embedded subtly throughout the everyday of school life; rather, it is emphasized and objectified through special cultural days (celebrating cultural foods, clothing, customs, etc)
- thus, forms a gap between what is normal and what is irregular
-creates the idea that the rest of school days celebrate the normal and dominant culture (white) while other days celebrate cultures that are different from the norm (Barton, et al., 2005)
Criticism of Traditional Approaches
Both promote
silence
through the
avoidance
of racialized talk (using labels such as Black, White, Asian)
Color-Blind Approach makes it unacceptable and inappropriate to recognize diversity
Diversity Approach downplays the racial power imbalances and challenges that racism cause by focusing on celebrating the cultures around the world
Teachers who feel uneasy about creating discussions about racism may be protecting the white children in her classroom, but make vulnerable the children of color who are left confused and alone to think about their differences (Barton, et al., 2005)
Better Approaches: Anti-Racist, Anti-Bias, and Social Justice Education
How should you respond using the Anti-Racist Approach?
Prejudice, Stereotyping, & Discrimination
instead of ignoring the children's comments, the teacher can later talk about the diversity within the classroom and how each person is unique and significant in their own way
instead of merely agreeing with Kevin's realization, the teacher can directly ask Anna and Kevin their opinion on racial segregation and skin color in the past, encouraging difficult, yet meaningful, discussion about racism
Prejudice
is an attitude, which comprises of 3 components:

emotional/affective component
: types of emotion connected to attitude such as happiness, sadness, etc.
cognitive component
: thoughts/beliefs that form attitude
behavioral component
: people's actions based on their attitudes
(Aronson, Wilson, Akert, & Fehr, 2010)
Scenario
:

"In a first grade classroom, the teacher is showing
a picture of an old storefront from the early 1900s. She asks what the children notice. Anna, a biracial child, leans over to Kevin, who is African American, and whispers, “If you were alive then, you wouldn’t be able to go in that store because of the color of your skin.” Stunned, Kevin repeats in a whisper, “If I was alive then, I wouldn’t be able to go in that store because of my skin color.” (Barton, et al., 2005)
4 Goals of Anti-Bias Education
Goal #1: "Each child will demonstrate self-awareness, confidence, family pride, and positive social identities"
encourage children to explore their self-identity through various activities that incorporates perspectives on gender, culture, race, and social class
be sure to express your respect towards your children's families because their concept of family coincides with their personal identity, which is crucial for positive self development (Sparks & Edwards, 2010)
Goal #2: "Each Child will express comfort and joy with human diversity"
Balance the discussion between:
Similarities—biological needs, universal characteristics of languages, families, and feelings
Differences—we interact differently with one another while encompassing similar fundamental traits
Best way to begin discussion is to talk about what children are familiar with—the diversity of their class
Then, begin to widen the scope—talk about where groups of people work and live within their neighborhood or city
Avoid tourist curriculum!! (Sparks & Edwards, 2010)
Goal #3: "Each child will increasingly recognize unfairness, have language to describe unfairness, and understand that it hurts
evaluate the children's misled ideas and stereotypes—find out their feelings or thoughts toward various diversity (handicapped people, different cultural groups, economic disparities—ex. homeless people, etc)
use pictures, books, a question to probe their thinking
create activities where children will reverse inaccurate or untrue beliefs to accurate ones
throughout the activity, strengthen children's competence to empathize and to be fair by encouraging them to think critically on how to make unfair things fair:
ex) they can make "parking tickets" for teachers who inappropriately park in the handicap parking lot (Sparks & Edwards, 2010)
Goal #4: Each Child will demonstrate empowerment and the skills to act,with others or alone, against prejudice and/or discriminatory actions"
take action with your class on the specific problem and engage in diverse strategies that best fits with the situation
ex) your class receives a calendar in which all children are White. After examining and discussing the pictures, your class determines that the calendar is unfair because it only shows White children and not others. They compose complaint letters to be sent to the company. After receiving no response, they carry out a petition using the words they used in their letters (Sparks & Edwards, 2010).
...leads to Anti-Racism!!
The Anti-Bias Approach
:

highlights challenges and benefits of fostering diversity
use of stories or images to engage in discussion about racial oppression, privilege, power imbalance, and inequity
does not only focus on cultural holidays and cultural celebrations
puts greater emphasis on how to find proactive ways to become anti-racist people (Sparks & Edwards, 2010)
Prejudice, Stereotyping, & Discrimination (continued)
Prejudice (the emotional component
): negative/hostile attitude a person has towards distinct group of people due to their membership in that particular group
(Aronson, Wilson, Akert, & Fehr, 2010)

Ex. A man prejudiced against Muslims will hold negative feelings about them and assume that they will act in ways that he associates with "those violent terrorist attackers."

Stereotypes (the cognitive component)
: a simple generalization regarding a group of people; identical characteristics are attributed to all members of a group, despite the existing differences amongst the members (Aronson, Wilson, Akert, & Fehr, 2010)

Ex. A man has the stereotypical notion that all Muslims are terrorists

Discrimination (behavioral component)
: the detrimental and unfair treatments towards people who are associated with a particular group; this hostile behavior arises out of stereotypes (Aronson, Wilson, Akert, & Fehr, 2010)

Ex. police officer, who has the stereotype that all Black men are violent perpetrators, are more likely to raise weapons against all black men
Activation of Stereotypes
Research shows that 40% of the population of youth in America are people of diverse cultural heritage (Ward, 2005)
Yet, there's an over-representation of White prime time characters, while there's an under-representation/absence of other racial minorities on TV--> media plays a role in shaping self-conceptions
Source: Ward, M. (2005). Children, adolescents and the media: The molding of minds, bodies, and deeds.
http://www.bus.iastate.edu/emullen/mgmt472/Prime%20time%20diversity%20report.pdf
Previous research has found that
stereotypes can be activated in certain contexts
(Aronson, Wilson, Akert, & Fehr, 2010)
Participants had to watch a video of a black man and a white man debate.
--> Participants rated the black debater's performance a lot lower than that of the white debater when the confederate initially made racist remarks about the black debater.
Under cases where no racist comments were made, participants rated both the black and the white debater exactly the same on their performance.
The racist remark acted as a trigger that activated other hostile stereotypes about black people (ex. that they are uneducated)
(Aronson, Wilson, Akert, & Fehr, 2010)

Stereotypes become a
utomatically triggered the more a person is deeply prejudiced
; in this case, it's harder for the controlled, rational thinking to override these stereotypes (Aronson, Wilson, Akert, & Fehr, 2010)
Racial Diversity of Prime
Time Characters 2003-2004
Selected Occupations by Race for Total Prime Time Characters 2003-2004
Previous research indicates that
racial minorities are portrayed in stereotypical ways on TV
(Ward, 2005)
When youth encounter characters of color playing roles that are not important to the storyline, then they come to believe that only certain races are valuable (Ward, 2005)
Youth are most likely to tune into t.v at the prime time (8 p.m.) when there is the
least representation of racial diversity
Only 1 in 5 shows represent characters of mixed races (Ward 2005)
This biased representation instills the notion in youths that certain groups are
privileged
and should be valued more highly (Ward, 2005)
Source: Ward, M. (2005). Children, adolescents and the media: The molding of minds, bodies, and deeds. Pg. 6.
http://www.bus.iastate.edu/emullen/mgmt472/Prime%20time%20diversity%20report.pdf
Prejudice, Stereotype, and Discrimination and Racial Bullying in School Contexts
We believe that through the repetitive distortions/under-representations of racial minorities in the media, people will come to form prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination against racial minority groups .

Due to this continuous racially biased exposure, we believe that people will come to form a stronger sense of prejudice, stereotype, and discrimination toward certain racial groups
These factors contribute to racial teasing and bullying in the classroom context

Ultimately, we believe that racial bullying and harassment will manifest themselves through the 5 faces of oppression.
The Concept of 5 Faces of Oppression
Possible Manifestations of 5 Faces of Oppression in a Classroom Setting
Marginalization
: prevention from participating in the more practical, cultural, and institutionalized areas of life where one can exercise his capabilities in contexts of interaction and acknowledgment (Young, 1990)
Ex. some racial minority students may be left out during recess, classroom activities, group discussions, etc.

Exploitation:
transfer of the outcomes of one social groups’ labour (ex. workers) to benefit another social group (ex. capitalists); the expended efforts of the former augment the wealth/power of the latter (Young, 1990)

Ex. some racial minority students may be forced by the bullies of the different race to lend them their homework, be forced to give money to the bullies, etc.
Possible Manifestations of 5 faces of Oppressions in a Classroom Setting
Cultural Imperialism
: involves the universalization and normalization of dominant groups’ cultural values, goals,and achievements (Young, 1990)

this standardization of the dominant group’s ideals stereotypes the less powerful group and marks them as the invisible other (Young, 1990)
Ex. children eating western food in the western context may be perceived as "normal" to the point where other lunches are regarded as unacceptable; children wearing hijab may be regarded as weird/odd in the western context.

Violence
: systematic social practice that targets members of a group for their group identities-it is meant to humiliate, damage, and destruct them (Young, 1990)
Ex. Racial minority children may be beaten up/picked on solely for their racial identities.

Powerlessness:
refers to those who lack authority, who complies to order, who has little opportunities to exercise his abilities/make judgments that affect his life, and over whom power is executed (Young, 1990)
Ex. some racial minority students may have little say in suggesting ideas for group work, may always be in a position where they have to go along with what the children of dominant culture say, etc.
Ways to Overcome Prejudice and Stereotypes
Sometimes stereotypes that are formed are hard to alter (Aronson, Wilson, Akert, & Fehr, 2010)
but, if continuous exposures to examples that contradict the common stereotypes are shown, stereotypes can be modified (Aronson, Wilson, Akert, & Fehr, 2010)
Ex. If one holds that black people are violent and aggressive, have them interact with black people who are kind and soft (providing opposite examples of the stereotype can modify it)

Get rid of the in-group bias (the tendency to favor one's in-group members over out-group members) that may lead up to racial bullying
Ex. constantly promote the concept of "we" as opposed to "us vs. them" phenomenon in the classroom by having the students cooperatively work together to produce a successful outcome

Help children find other ways to derive self-esteem that results at times from getting the notion that their in-group is more superior than the out-group
Ex. teachers should constantly compliment children for their strengths and encourage them improve their weaknesses so that they will stop denigrating out-group members to constantly feel proud and confident
Justice
: institutional conditions needed for the growth and execution of collective cooperation and individual capabilities (Young, 1990)
Injustice
: oppression and domination are two forms of injustice (Young, 1990)
Oppression
: phenomena that disables or disparages a group (Young, 1990)

Source: Ward, M. (2005). Children, adolescents and the media: The molding of minds, bodies, and deeds. Pg. 2
Source: Ward, M. (2005). Children, adolescents and the media: The molding of minds, bodies, and deeds. Pg. 6
Source: http://images.huffingtonpost.com/2014-05-28-shutterstock_16121635.jpg
The Pinhead Project
Great way to introduce what racism might look like in a school and home setting
After watching the video, teachers can ask:

What do you see happening in the video?
How they feel about the way people are marginalized in the video
Have you ever experienced this in your life?
What are some ways to act upon this bullying when it happens?
As a community, how can we support each other?
Anti-Biased/Racist Approach:
This approach highlights both the dark side (oppression, power imbalance/inequity) and the bright side (multiculturalism) of diversity through meaningful dialogue with children to help them find proactive ways to be anti-racist individuals. These anti-racist conversations may vary depending on the situation and the teacher; nonetheless, it should include these core principles: (1) take place in a community of trust, (2) require listening and questioning, (3) go deep, (4) are honest, (5) require preparation and knowledge, and (6) involve families and communities.
Childhood Innocence
: research shows (Kelly & Brooks, 2009) that many elementary teachers assume that children only see racial difference when society points it out to them but children already have predisposed observations about social justice issues. We focus our research package on moving away from the childhood innocence assumption.
Color-blindness:
linked to the childhood innocence assumption that children do not see racial difference but this promotes avoiding teaching about racialization. We focus our research package on counter-acting the color-blind approach by promoting the anti-bias approach with students.
Cultural Imperialism:
involves the universalization and normalization of dominant groups’ cultural values, goals,and achievements. We explore this concept to look further into the different types of racial bullying in school contexts.
Discrimination:
(behavioral component): the detrimental and unfair treatments, arising out of stereotypes, towards a membership of a group solely due to his/her membership within that particular group. We explain how distortions of the media of racial minorities encourage discriminatory racial bullying in school.
Exploitation:
transfer of the outcomes of one social groups’ labour (ex. workers) to benefit the another social group (ex. capitalists); the expended efforts of the former augment the wealth/power of the latter. We explore this concept to further look into the different types of racial bullying in school contexts.
I
njustice:
oppression and domination are two forms of injustice. We explore this concept, especially oppression, to further look into the different faces of oppression.

https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQVF7fAOEz14OA3kd2DWfU_HfXVS7qXtH03II0iXzvpKeLCysnw
https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQXdeGSa1Yf2VZP0juj-cMFhl5hMV8PVmIDHcb7rcBXY2S20ZtJjQ
Annotated Bibliography
Aronson E., Wilson T.D., Akert, R.M., & Fehr B. (2010). Prejudice: causes and cures (Eds.), Social Psychology (375-390). Toronto: Pearson.

This chapter explains what are prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination. It also explains why we come to acquire them; it's due to the in-group bias (attainment of social identity), social categorization (us vs. them), and maintenance of self-esteem via denigration of out-groups. It also explains how stereotypes can be activated via the process of priming. Lastly, it explains how stereotypes are resistant to change, yet via continuous exposures to contradicting examples of stereotypes, they can be altered.

Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. Media Psychology, 3.3, 265-299. DOI: 10.1207S1532785XMEP0303_03

Bandura's framework focuses on four sub-processes that govern children's cognitive processes while interacting with media (attention, retention, production, motivation). His framework helps shape our research on how racial stereotyping on media affects children's cognitive processes and on self-perceptions. Interacting with media has the potential to create and change beliefs about racial and ethnic groups—children are not just passive consumers. Using this framework suggests that media messages may shape how children think about, act around and treat others in our society.

Barton, A. C., Carreon, G. P., & Drake, C. (2005). The Importance of Presence: Immigrant Parents’ School Engagement Experiences. American Educational Research Journal, 42(3), 465-498. Retrieved from http://aer.sagepub.com/content/42/3/465.short
This article examines preexisting educational literature and knowledge that discuss the abilities and capabilities of young children to understand and talk about racial differences. Also, the article various approaches that educators can pursue in order to get in touch with concepts that support equity and justice in K to grade 3 classrooms. Most importantly, the article demonstrates that it is imperative for early educators to provide more opportunities for children to talk about race and to engage with these types of conversations for social justice. This article is significant to our case because it shows that addressing these topics in class and creating an ongoing discussion can encourage children, like Kayla, to learn about race and its relevance to the world around them.

Derman-Sparks, L. and Ramsey, P. (2005). What if all the children in my class are white? Historical and research background. Embracing Diversity. 1-6. https://www.naeyc.org/files/yc/file/200511/DermanSparksBTJ1105.pdf

Derman-Sparks and Ramsey discuss the gaps and contradictions in research on children’s racial awareness. They provide solid research that has proven that infants as young as six months old react consistently to racial differences. They argue that the fear of racial difference may be driven by racial isolation and negative images of certain groups. By providing solid research, this source is useful to demonstrate how to move away from the childhood innocence and assumption and the color-blindness approach.


Annotated Bibliography Page 2
Glossary Continued
Intention
: works on various levels-- the individual, systemic, and internalized. Intention can result in harm without any intention. In our research package we focus on how intention plays in with the five faces of oppression to examine whether Kayla was intentionally being racist to Nikesh or if she was acting from systems of privilege and oppression.
Justice
: institutional conditions needed for the growth and execution of collective cooperation and individual capabilities. We contrast this concept to injustice to further question the 5 faces of oppression.
Oppression
: phenomena that disables or disparages a group. We explore this concept further to learn more about the different types of oppression that may manifest themselves in the context of racial bullying.
Prejudice:
(the emotional component): negative/hostile attitude a person has towards distinct group of people due to their membership in that particular group. We explain how distortions of the media of racial minorities create prejudice towards them, which leads to racial bullying.
Powerlessness:
refers to those who lack authority, who complies to order, who has little opportunities to exercise his abilities/make judgments that affect his life, and over whom power is executed. We explore this concept to further look into the different types of racial bullying in school.
Social cognitive theory of mass communication
: Bandura's framework (2001) focuses on four sub-processes that govern children's cognitive processes while interacting with media (attention, retention, production, motivation). By using Bandura's theory, we center our research on how racial stereotyping on media affects children's self-perceptions.
Stereotype:
(the cognitive component): a simple generalization regarding a group of people; identical characteristics are attributed to all members of a group, despite the existing differences amongst the members. We explain how distortions of the media of racial minorities create stereotypes, which leads to racial bullying.
Violence:
systematic social practice that targets members of a group for their group identities-it is meant to humiliate, damage, and destruct them. We explore this concept to look further into the different types of racial bullying in school.
Picture Source: https://www.organicconsumers.org/sites/default/files/silence.jpg
Source: http://images.sodahead.com/polls/001399065/Erwitt_segregation_xlarge.jpeg
Source: http://empathyeducates.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/colorblind-racism-583x380.jpg

Source: http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/oma/images/Kids-line.gif
Conclusion
As we have discussed, there are many approaches to teaching and engaging students with social justice issues such as racism and bullying. The purpose of this package is to address the issue of intentionality and counteracting oppression against the face of racial privilege. Was Kayla being purposefully racist or was she unintentionally caught up in a system of privilege and oppression?

We must move away from the "childhood innocence" assumption and instead build upon children's predisposed observations about social inequalities. Children are not just passive consumers. Learning ultimately occurs in a social context.

5 systems of oppression can manifest themselves in a racial bullying context. Thus, we must be aware of ways to counteract these 5 faces of oppression (i.e teaching self-awareness, family pride, appreciation of cultural diversity, dangers of misleading stereotypes, etc.)

The best way to prevent racism is through the anti-biased and the anti-racist education—the teacher should discuss both the dark side (oppression, power imbalance/inequity) and the bright side (multiculturalism) of diversity through meaningful dialogue with children to help them find proactive ways to be anti-racist individuals. .
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Source: atlantablackstar.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/racial-bullying.png
Source: www.rawstory.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/nhappy-Girl-Being-Bullied-In-Class-Shutterstock-800x430.jpg
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https://citizenactionmonitor.files.wordpress.com/2010/08/scales-of-injustice.gif?w=300&h=240
https://helpmeunderstandall.files.wordpress.com/2014/06/slavery-black-slaves-back-littered-with-scars-from-whipping1.jpg?w=380&h=460
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Derman-Sparks, L. and Ramsey, P. (2005). What if all the children in my class are white? Historical and research background. Embracing Diversity. 1-6. https://www.naeyc.org/files/yc/file/200511/DermanSparksBTJ1105.pdf

Derman-Sparks and Ramsey discuss the gaps and contradictions in research on children’s racial awareness. They provide solid research that has proven that infants as young as six months old react consistently to racial differences. They argue that the fear of racial difference may be driven by racial isolation and negative images of certain groups. By providing solid research, this source is useful to demonstrate how to move away from the childhood innocence and assumption and the color-blindness approach.

Kelly, D. & Brooks, M. (2009) How young is too young? Exploring beginning teachers’ assumptions about young children teaching for social justice. Equity & Excellence in Education, 42.2, 202-216, DOI: 1.1080/10665680902739683

Through individual interviews, Kelly and Brooks examine and document the predisposed views of elementary school teachers about teaching social justice and assumptions about elementary children’s cognitive and emotional capacities for making political judgements. They prove that children begin learning about social inequalities like race, poverty, war, gender, and sexuality even before they start school. “Childhood innocence” was a common assumption but it ignores children’s active role in making meaning out from social inequalities. For decades, many people assume that children only see racial difference/social inequalities when society points it out to them. There is a blurred line between intention and children’s presdisposed meanings about social justice issues, racism, etc. before they even start school.

Kelly, D. (2012). Teaching for social justice translating an anti-oppression approach into practice. Our schools/Our selves, 135-152.

This article addresses ways that teachers can teach their students on countering the five faces of oppression. For example, to counter marginalization, teachers should devise activities with more room to practice inclusion and to counter exploitation, teachers should draw students' attention towards activist movements. To counter violence, teachers must talk through what is a degrading, inappropriate behavior and to counter powerlessness, teachers should give their students more opportunities to co-determine the school rules. Lastly, to counter cultural imperialism, teachers should discuss reasons for omissions of the less privileged group in the curriculum.

Martins, N. and Harrison, K. (2012). Racial and gender differences in the relationship between children’s television use and self esteem: A longitudinal panel study. Communication Research, 39.3, 338-357. DOI: 10.1177/009365021 140 1376

Martins and Harrison studied 396 White and Black preteens in elementary schools in the Midwest US over a yearlong period shows that “children are affected when they don’t see themselves represented on TV” and it affects them when the young people who look like them are seen doing something wrong. They prove that TV exposure is directly correlated to a decrease in self-esteem for White and Black girls and Black boys due to biased media representations. Media clearly plays an important role in shaping children’s self-conceptions.
Annotated Bibliography Page 3
Sparks, L.D. & Edwards, J. O. (2010). Anti-Bias Education for Young Children and Ourselves (What is Anti-Bias Education). Retrieved from https://www.naeyc.org/store/files/store/TOC/254.pdf
This chapter talks what anti-bias education is and why it’s important to early childhood education. It highlights the significant role of the teacher as a facilitator for anti-bias work. Most importantly, this chapter talks about the four goals of anti-bias education and how they work together to create an anti-racist self—one that is capable of empathy and respect towards all people. This chapter is related to our case because it provides a theoretical framework of how we can educate younger children, such as Kayla and Nikesh, into becoming proactive individuals with a strong self worth as well as equal respect for others.

The Pinhead Project. (2010, September 7).
The Girl With Pinhead Parents, an anti-racism lesson, feat. Nelly Furtado, Chris Bosh, LIGHTS & more)
[video file]. Retrieved from www.youtube.com.


This YouTube video portrays what racism might look like in a home setting as well as a school setting. It doesn’t talk around racism or celebrates multiculturalism; rather, it realistically shows the different forms of racism—how ignorant and hurtful it can be to the self as well as others. This video is useful because the teacher can use it to teach the class that everyone is in fact different, but everyone is also unique and special in his or her own way. This video is relevant to our case study because Kayla can realize that various foods from other cultures may smell different, not smelly.

Ward, M. (2005). Children, adolescents and the media: The molding of minds, bodies, and deeds.
http://www.bus.iastate.edu/emullen/mgmt472/Prime%20time%20diversity%20report.pdf

Children Now, a national children’s advocacy organization commissions several examinations of prime time television to better understand the messages that television sends to youth through representations of racial groups and selected occupations by race for total characters. During 2003 to 2004, Children Now reported that 40 percent of American youth ages 19 and under are children of color, yet their cultural heritages were extremely underrepresented on television. These biased media representations instills the notion in youths that certain groups are privileged and should be valued more highly.

Young, I.M. (1990). Five faces of oppression. Justice and the politics of difference, 37-60.

This article clearly defines the definition of oppression: exploitation, marginalization, powerlessness, cultural imperialism, and violence. Young (1990) clearly discusses the concept of the privileged vs. unprivileged for each of these five faces of oppression. Young (1990) also clearly explains how to go about objectively forming the judgment of whether individuals or groups are oppressed and judge exactly what kinds of oppression that these people are facing.
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