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The PQ4R Method
Transcript of The PQ4R Method
- While massed learning, otherwise known as cramming, is less effective that the distributed learning. It is when the material is studied all at once.
- We tend to understand and remember the information more if we go over it regularly. While the first way may be tedious and hard to commit to, it greatly reduces the amount of time we have to study before the test. Ways to review:
1) Go back to the questions and answers jotted down
2) Classmates to quiz each other.
The PQ4R Method
What is the PQ4R method?
The Six Steps of the PQ4R Method
'PQ4R' basically stands for preview, question, read, reflect, recite and review.
The First Step: Preview
The first step in this method is to preview the subject or section, which means getting a general picture or idea about that subject before reading about it.
One example of previewing the material is to skim through the pages. Nowadays, most books are designed to allow students to preview the lessons before reading them. For example, the main ideas in our psychology is one way to briefly get introduced to the chapter.
This step will allow one to create a cognitive map of the chapter or subject before starting to reads more thoroughly about it.
- If we put certain goals in our heads, then this simplifies the process of learning. Creating questions is a way that is used to set goals.
- One can ask questions based on: the headings or the first sentence of each paragraph. From that, one is able to ask meaningful questions about the subject.
The First R: Read
Reading can help you answer the questions you earlier jotted down, and it gives you the key points of the material. Jotting down key words next to the questions can help you remember the answer for the later steps.
Reflecting on the subject helps you remember and understand it more. Ways to reflect may include:
1) To relate new information to old information
2) To relate new information to events in personal life
3) To think of ways in which other people can provide examples about the certain subject.
Reciting the answers of the questions helps you remember the answer to the questions. Reciting can be done in two ways:
1) You can recite to yourself either out loud or by repeating the words and concepts silently.
2) You can also learn by reciting to one another in a study group.
Study groups are very beneficial, they help students learn new material, and can help them make clearer associations with the material.
The PQ4R method, as mentioned in your books on page 178, can be regarded as the "easy" method in which students can learn. Psychologists based this method on operant and cognitive learning.
It is believed that by using this method that was introduced by Francis P. Robinson, students are able to learn the subject by using a more active approach.