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Transcript of Skeletal System
2. Protects internal organs
3. Provides for movement
4. Stores mineral reserves
5. Provides site for blood cell formation There are 206 bones in the adult human skeleton.
The axial skeleton supports the central axis (skull, vertebral comlumn, rib cage)
The other bones make up the appendicular skeleton (arms, legs, pelvis, and shoulder area) Structure of Bones Bones are a solid network of living cells and protein fibers that are surrounded by deposits of calcium salts. Periosteum: Tough layer of connective tissue with blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients Compact Bone: Dense thick layer containing Haversian canals (network of tubes containing blood vessels and nerves) Spongy bone: Latticework strucutre adds strength without adding mass Two types
1. Yellow marrow: fat cells
2. Red marrow: Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets Bone marrow: Cavities within bone containing soft tissue Ossification: Process of bone formation
Osteoblasts secrete mineral deposits replacing cartilage
Osteoblasts become surrounded by bone tissue and mature into osteocytes Types of bone cells
Osteocytes: Mature bone Osteoclasts: Break down bone
Osteoblasts: Produce bone An embryo's skeleton is made of connective tissue called cartilage which doesn't have blood vessels but can support weight and is extremely flexible. Joint Arthritis: Excessive strain leads to excess fluid and inflammation of the joint causing swelling, pain, heat, and redness
Osteoporosis: Loss of calcium leads to weakening of bones and fractures
Skeletal System Disorders Place where one bone attaches to another bone Works Cited
The Human Skeleton. Digital image. Prentice Hall. Pearson Success Net. Web. 26 Apr. 2010. <http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/ebook/products/
Miller, Kenneth R., and Joseph S. Levine. "The Skeletal System." Prentice Hall Biology. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2004. 921-25. Print.
Structure of a Bone. Digital image. Prentice Hall. Pearson Success Net. Web. 26 Apr. 2010. <http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/iText/products/0-13-181118-5/ch36/sb1102f1c.html>. 1. Immovable joints (skull)
2. Slightly moveable joints (adjacent vertebrae)
3. Freely moveable joints (knee, elbow) Cartilage covers surfaces where bones meet.
Fibrous joint capsule holds bones together.
Ligaments, strips of tough connective tissue, hold bones together by attaching to the membranes srurounding bones
Cells produce synovial fluid which acts as a lubricating film for smooth movement
Bursae are small sacs of synovial fluid that reduce friction and act as shock absorbers Structure Classification Development of Bones