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Copy of Ethos, Pathos, & Logos

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Mr. Parish

on 20 April 2017

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Transcript of Copy of Ethos, Pathos, & Logos

Powers of Persuasion:
Ethos, Pathos, Logos
Rhetorical (argumentative) strategies that all of us use ...
every single day.

Pathos = Emotional Appeals
Logos = Logic or Reason
Ethos = Ethical or Moral
The author or creator's
credibility
, believability, and/or likeability

The speaker or writer must demonstrate
credibility
to the audience to be persuasive.
Stories, scenarios, or statements designed to create an
emotional response.

When you are persuaded by pathos, you accept a claim based on how it makes you
feel,

without fully analyzing how valid the claim is.

You may be persuaded by
fear, love, patriotism, hatred, joy, humor, guilt.

The use of pathos can be extremely
effective--and also
manipulative
.
Logos refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect.

Logos appeals to the left side of our brain. We find certain patterns, conventions, and methods of reasoning to be convincing and persuasive.

Numbers, polls, facts and statistics are also examples of the persuasive use of logic.
For example ...
... when a trusted doctor gives you advice, you may not understand all the medical reasoning behind the advice, but you follow it any way because you believe the doctor knows what s/he is talking about. You trust him or her!
She has ethos!
English Words:
em
path
y, sym
path
y,
path
etic, anti
path
y
How does this World War II poster use pathos?
Appeals to Pathos:
English words:
eth
ical,
eth
ics
English words:
log
ic,
log
ical
How is Logos Used Here?
Think about a really persuasive commercial.
How does that company get you to buy what they're selling?
Rhetoric: The Art of Persuasion
The history of rhetoric and the concepts of ethos, pathos, and logos began in Greece.
Argument and Persuasion:
Warm-up
Who was Aristotle?
If an advertisement or a commercial succeeds in making a person buy something, it has been PERSUASIVE.
Check for Understanding
Why do people trust these men when they talk about basketball?
Logos
Pathos
Ethos
Effective persuasion uses all three kinds of appeals
.
Are the following examples of ethos, pathos, or logos?

He was a famous Greek philosopher who studied the art of persuasion.


"Now the proofs furnished by the speech are of three kinds. The first depends upon the moral character of the speaker, the second upon putting the hearer into a certain frame of mind, the third upon the speech itself, in so far as it proves or seems to prove."
--Aristotle, Art of Rhetoric
Trigger our love, our fear, our psyche
Both words and pictures can achieve this appeal.
Pathos is the use of emotional appeal.
Logical Appeals (Logos)
1. "My three decades of experience in public service, my tireless commitment to the people of this community, and my willingness to reach across the aisle and cooperate with the opposition, make me the ideal candidate for your mayor."

2. "They’ve worked against everything we’ve worked so hard to build, and they don’t care who gets hurt in the process. Make no mistake, they’re the enemy, and they won’t stop until we’re all destroyed."

3. "More than one hundred peer-reviewed studies have been conducted over the past decade, and none of them suggests that this is an effective treatment for hair loss."

4. "Don’t be the last person on the block to have their lawn treated – you don’t want to be the laughing stock of your community!"

5. Using ethos, pathos, and logos, write a small paragraph convincing your parents to take away your curfew.
Ethos, Pathos, and Logos!
How do I use ethos, pathos, and logos
every single day?

I don't even know what these things are!
Appeals to Authority (ethos)
Pretend that you are sick, go to the doctor, and she gives you a prescription for a pill that would make you feel better. Would you take the pill?
How would the situation change if you were at the mall with your friends, felt sick, and were offered a pill?
Terrible idea!
No ethos!
How is pathos used in this video?
What emotion are they trying to draw out?
Which advertisement was more effective? The video or this picture?
Did you know that....
Aristotle was Alexander the Great's Personal Teacher
Bad ethos!
Sometimes there is too much pathos.
Sometimes emotional appeals
trigger complex emotions
like duty or patriotism
Logos isn't just about statistics and evidence, it is also about
creating a logical chain of thought
(reasoning/proof).
Transitive Property:
A=B
B=C
<> A=C

Writing Example:
This claim is furthered by Amy Schalet, Ph.D., an expert in her field who has spent the past decade studying effective sexual education. In her paper, published by the University of Chicago
, Schalet concretely states that “abstinence-only-until-marriage, touted as the only full-proof safe sex, leaves young people unprepared to take precautions when they do have sex before marriage,” which leaves them open to damaging consequences such as sexually transmitted infections and unintentional and unwanted pregnancies (
Schalet
).
Digging Deeper
http://www.cc.com/video-clips/z1aahs/the-colbert-report-the-word---wikiality
Sources and reality
Basing beliefs and opinions on false credibility.
Wrap up Videos and Discussion
Deductive
Vs.
Inductive
Reasoning
Deductive Reasoning

The "top-down" approach.
Start off with a hypothesis or thesis and prove that examples of this are true.

Therefore, the original argument is true.
...However, deductive reasoning only works if all the premises are true.


If the hypothesis is false, even a logical chain will not work.
http://www.annenbergclassroom.org/Files/Documents/LessonPlans/Fallacies/teacher.handout.witchs.trial.pdf
The breakdown...
1. All witches are things that can burn.
2. All things that can burn are made of wood.
3. Therefore, all witches are made of wood. (from 1 & 2)
4. All things that are made of wood are things that can float.
5. All things that weigh as much as a duck are things that can float.
6. So all things that weigh as much as a duck are things that are made of wood. (from 4
& 5)
7. Therefore, all witches are things that weigh as much as a duck. (from 3 & 6)
8. This thing is a thing that weighs as much as a duck.
9. Therefore, this thing is a witch. (from 7 & 8)
Cops use Deductive reasoning
...because they must prove with evidence that someone committed a serious crime.
With murder cases for instance,
They CANNOT use educated guesses.
"that no other logical explanation can be derived from the facts except that the defendant committed the crime, thereby overcoming the presumption that a person is innocent until proven guilty."
Evidence beyond reasonable doubt
A) Thesis: This is a moose.
B) Evidence: The definition of a moose is: A large, tall mammal with brown hair, who lives in western states like Wyoming, and in which the bulls have broad, paddle-shaped antlers.

C) This animal has, large paddled antlers. Is located in Wyoming, and whose hair indicates it is a mammal.

A=C) Therefore, this animal is a moose

Inductive Reasoning.
- Making observations that result in an educated guess, prediction, or conclusion.
Inductive Reasoning allows us to make educated guesses.
What will the next number be?

7, 14, 21, 28, _____?
...but we can also come to false conclusions.
7, 14, 21, 28, _____?

For instance, what if these were dates on a calendar?
(January, for instance)
What is the problem with trying to prove one hypothesis?
The problem with Deduction
https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2011/10/thinking-vs-feeling-the-psychology-of-advertising/247466/
Thinking Vs Feeling
Full transcript