Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
Do you really want to delete this prezi?
Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.
Make your likes visible on Facebook?
Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.
Transcript of PMP CERTIFICATION
Is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result
Temporary endeavor with a definite beginning and a definite end
Creates a unique product, service or result
Is progressively elaborated
Done for a propouse
Has interrelated activities
Projects are undertaken at all organizational levels
Implementing a change in a organization
implementing a new business procedure or process
Modifying or developing a new information system
( PMBOK )
Project Management Body of Knowledge
Is the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management
Provides traditional practices that are widely applied, as well as innovative practices that are emerging in the profession
Describes the project management processes, tools and techniques used to manage a project toward a successful outcome
Is constantly evolving
Provides and promote a common vocabulary
Is limited to single projects and to the project management processes that are generally recognized as good practice.
Provides a basic reference for anyone interested in the profession
Individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project, or whose interest may be affected as a result of project execution.
- Old Concept: Cost, Time & Scope to achieve the required Quality and Customer Satisfaction.
TIME, COST, SCOPE, QUALITY, RISK, RESOURCES & Other factors that limit options, such customer satisfaction or requirements.
- These are so intertwined that a change in one will most often cause a change in at least one of the others.
- Management directly or indirectly sets the priority for each constraint.
ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
These factors refer to both, internal and external environmental factors that surrond or influence a project's success. For example:
- Organizational culture, structure & processes
- Marketplace conditions
- Government or industries standards
- Risk tolerances
- Information systems, ..........
Is the application or knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements
Is accomplished through the appropriate application and integration of the
grouped PMt Processes comprising the FIVE PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS GROUPS:
Monitoring & Controling
The project management plan is iterative and goes through progressive elaboration throughout the project's life cycle:
Involves continuously improving and detailing the project plan as more-detailed and specific information and more accurate estimates become available
Allows a project management team to manage to a greater level of detail as the project evolves
PROJECTS vs OPERATIONS
Operations are an organizational function performing the ongoing execution of activities that produce the same product or provide a repetitive service
Project are temporary endeavors
Both share some characteristics
Projects require Project Management while Operations require Business Process Management or Operations Management
Projects can intersect with operations at various points during the product life cycle, f.e. at each closeout phase
PORTFOLIO vs PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT
refers to a collection of projects/ programs or other works that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives.
Projects or programs may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related
refers to the centralized management of one or more portfolios, to achieve specific strategic business objectives.
Includes identifying, prioritizing, authorizing, managing and controlling projects, programs and other related work
Focuses on ensuring that project and programs are reviewed to prioritize resource allocation, and that the management of portfolio is consistent with and aligned to organizational strategies
Organizational Influences &
Project Life Cycle
Project Management Processes for a Project
Section I: The Project Management
PROGRAM vs PROGRAM MANAGEMENT
is a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually.
is the centralized coordinated management ot a prgram to achieve the program's strategic objectives and benefits. Focus on the project interdependences and helps to determine the optimal approach for managing them. Examples:
Resolving resource constraint and/or conflicts that affect multiple projects within the Program
Aligning organizational strategic direction that affects project and program goals and objectives
Resolving issues and change management within a shared governance structure
PROJECT AND STRATEGIC PLANNING
Projects, within programs or portfolios, are a mean of achieving organizational goals and objectives, often in the context of a strategic plan.
Projects are often utilized as a mean of achieving an organization's strategic objective:
Deal with a market demand
Take advantage of a strategic opportunity or satisfy a business need
Meet a customer request
Exploit a technological advance
Satisfy a legal requirement
Although a group of projects within a program can have discrete benefits, they can also contribute to the benefits of the program, to the objectives of the portfolio, and to the strategic plan of the organization
Organizations manage portfolios based on their strategic plan, which may dictate a hierarchy to the portfolio, program or projects involved.
Is the person assigned by the performing organization to achieve the project objectives
Professionals adhere to the "PMI Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct"
- Depending on the organizational structure, a PM may report to a Functional Manager or may be one of several PMs reporting to a Portfolio or Program Manager.
- PM have to posses the following characteristics:
Knowledge, PM knows about project management
Performance, PM is able to do or accomplish while applying
Personal, the ability to guide the project team while achieving project objectives and balancing the project constraints.
- Project Objectives:
Are first described in the Project Charter
Project is complete when the objectives have been met
It's the PM's role to accomplish the project objectives
The reason for quality activities is to make sure the project objectives will be met
Things that could negatively impact the project objectives, such as risk and stakeholder's influence, should be watched and tracked
Project often require trade-offs between the requirements and the objectives
Project objectives are determined in the Initiating Group of Processes and refined during the Project's Life in the Planning Group of Processes
One of the purposes of the Develop Project Management Plan Process is to determine how work will be accomplished to meet project objectives.
EFFECTIVE PROJECT MANAGEMENT REQUIRES KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
FROM AT LEAST FIVE AREAS OF EXPERTISE:
1. Project Management
Body of Knowledge
4. General Management Knowledge & Skills
3. Understanding the Project Environmental
Influencing the Organization
Motivation ans Commitment Building
Negotiation and Conflict Management
Health and Safety.....
Cultural and Social
International and Political
Section II: The Standard
for Project Management of a Project
Section III: The Project Management
PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE
Is an organizational body or entity assigned various responsibilities related to the centralized and coordinated management of those projects under its domain
OVERSEES THE MANAGEMENT OF PROJECTS, PROGRAMS
OR A COMBINATION OF BOTH
- The Responsibilities or a PMO can range from providing project management support functions to actually being responsible for the direct management of the organization's projects.
- The projects supported or administered by the PMO may not be related, other than by being managed together.
- The characteristics of a PMO are dependent upon the needs of the organization that it supports.
- The most important function of a PMO is to support PMs in a variety of ways:
Managing shared resources across all projects administered by the PMO,
Identifying and developing methodology, best practices and standards,
Coaching, mentoring, training and oversight,
Developing and managing the organizational process assets
Coordinating communication across projects.
Role of a PMO vs Role of Project Managers
- PMs and the PMO pursue different objectives however, are aligned with the strategic needs of the organization
- Some differences between both roles, may include the following:
PM focuses on the specific project objectives
PMO manages major program scope changes which may be seen as potential opportunities to better achieve business objectives.
PM controls the assigned project resources to best meet project objectives
PMO optimizes the use of share organizational resources across all projects
PM manages the constraints of the individual projects
PMO manages the methodologies, standards, overall risk/opportunity, and interdependencies among projects at the organizational level
COMPARATIVE OVERVIEW of Project Management, Program Management & Portfolio Management
RELATIONSHIPS among Project Management, Program Management & Portfolio Management
Is a temporary endeavor with a beginning and an end.
Creates a unique product, service or result.
OPERATIONS vs. PROJECTS
Operational work is ongoing work
to support the business and systems of the organization
Project work ends
when the project is closed
While a project's completed product may prompt a change in operations, the need to change or improve operational work may prompt the initiation of a project
Product Scope description
Meeting management, ....
The document issued by sponsor that formally authorizes a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
Project purpose or justification
Measurable project objectives and related success criteria
Assumptions and constraints
Summary milestone schedule
Project approval requirements
Assigned project manager,responsability and authority level
Name and authority of the sponsor or other persons authorizing the project chapter
Meeting management, Kick-off ....
The document that describes how the project will be executed, monitored and controlled.
It integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary plans and baselines from the planning processes.
- PROJECT BASELINES:
- SUBSIDIARY PLANS
- AMONG OTHER THINGS:
Life cycle selected that applied to each phase
Details of the tailoring decisions specified by the PM team
Description of how work will be executed to accomplish the project objectives
Change management plan that documents how changes will be monitored and controlled
Requirements and techniques for communication among stakeholders
Brainstorming, option evaluation, design
Should be prepared with a well-defined agenda,
purpose, objectives and time frame. Should be documented with meeting minutes and action items.
FACE-TO-FACE is the most effective
Configuration Management Plan
Configuration Management System
Requirements Management Plan
Work authorization System
Change Management Plan
Change Control System
PMIS i/ KPIs
• Perform activities to accomplish project objectives;
• Create project deliverables to meet the planned project work;
• Provide, train, and manage the team members assigned to the project;
• Obtain, manage, and use resources including materials, tools, equipment, and facilities;
• Implement the planned methods and standards;
• Establish and manage project communication channels, both external and internal to the project team;
• Generate work performance data, such as cost, schedule, technical and quality progress, and status to facilitate forecasting;
• Issue change requests and implement approved changes into the project’s scope, plans, and environment;
• Manage risks and implement risk response activities;
• Manage sellers and suppliers;
• Manage stakeholders and their engagement;
• Collect and document lessons learned and implement approved process improvement activities.
• Corrective actions
• Preventive actions
• Defect repair
Any unique and verifiable product, result or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process, phase or project
• Corrective actions
• Preventive actions
• Defect repair
Key Performance Indicators
Technical performances measures
Dates of schedules activities
Number of change requests
Number of defects
Actual durations, etc...
• Comparing actual project performance against the project management plan;
• Assessing performance to determine whether any corrective or preventive actions are indicated, and
then recommending those actions as necessary;
• Identifying new risks and analyzing, tracking, and monitoring existing project risks to make sure the risks are identified, their status is reported, and that appropriate risk response plans are being executed;
• Maintaining an accurate, timely information base concerning the project’s product(s) and their associated documentation through project completion;
• Providing information to support status reporting, progress measurement, and forecasting;
• Providing forecasts to update current cost and current schedule information;
• Monitoring implementation of approved changes as they occur;
• Providing appropriate reporting on project progress and status to program management when the project
is part of an overall program.
Estimate To Complete (ETC)
Schedule Variance (SV)
Schedule Performance Index (SPI)
Estimate To Complete (ETC)
Cost Variance (CV)
Cost Performance Index (CPI)
Estimate At Complete (EAC)
Status of deliverables
Implementation status for change request
Forecasted estimates to complete
• Regression analysis,
• Grouping methods,
• Causal analysis,
• Root cause analysis,
• Forecasting methods (e.g., time series, scenario building, simulation, etc.),
• Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA),
• Fault tree analysis (FTA),
• Reserve analysis,
• Trend analysis,
• Earned value management, and
• Variance analysis.
• Focused on the specification of both the deliverables and the processes
• Identifying that a change needs to occur
• Reviewing and approving requested changes
• Maintaining the integrity of the baselines
• Standardized, effective and efficient process to manage changes within a project
Change control Board (CCB)
Approved change requests can require new or revised cost estimates, activity sequences, schedule dates, resource requirements.
Analysis of risk response alternatives
To document changes that occur during a project
Rejected change requests are also captured in the change log
Formal acceptance documentation
Project closure documents
• Actions and activities necessary to satisfy completion or exit criteria for the phase or project;
• Actions and activities necessary to transfer the project’s products, services, or results to the next phase
or to production and/or operations; and
• Activities needed to collect project or phase records, audit project success or failure, gather lessons
learned and archive project information for future use by the organization.
• Process for preparing a detailed project scope statement;
• Process that enables the creation of the WBS from the detailed project scope statement;
• Process that establishes how the WBS will be maintained and approved;
• Process that specifies how formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables will be obtained; and
• Process to control how requests for changes to the detailed project scope statement will be processed. This process is directly linked to the Perform Integrated Change Control process (Section 4.5).
The scope management plan can be formal or informal, broadly framed or highly detailed, based on the needs of the project.
• How requirements activities will be planned, tracked, and reported;
• Configuration management activities such as: how changes to the product will be initiated, how impacts will be analyzed, how they will be traced, tracked, and reported, as well as the authorization levels required to approve these changes;
• Requirements prioritization process;
• Product metrics that will be used and the rationale for using them; and
• Traceability structure to reflect which requirement attributes will be captured on the traceability matrix.
Describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified. The scope management plan is a major input
into the Develop Project Management Plan process. It includes:
Requirements can be grouped into classifications allowing for further refinement and detail as the requirements are elaborated:
• Business requirements, which describe the higher-level needs of the organization as a whole, such as the business issues or opportunities, and reasons why a project has been undertaken.
• Stakeholder requirements, which describe needs of a stakeholder or stakeholder group.
• Solution requirements, which describe features, functions, and characteristics of the product, service, or result that will meet the business and stakeholder requirements. Solution requirements are further grouped into functional and nonfunctional requirements:
- Functional requirements describe the behaviors of the product. Examples include processes, data, and interactions with the product.
- Nonfunctional requirements supplement functional requirements and describe the environmental conditions or qualities required for the product to be effective. Examples include: reliability, security, performance, safety, level of service, supportability, retention/purge, etc.
• Transition requirements describe temporary capabilities, such as data conversion and training requirements, needed to transition from the current “as-is” state to the future “to-be” state.
• Project requirements, which describe the actions, processes, or other conditions the project needs to meet.
• Quality requirements, which capture any condition or criteria needed to validate the successful completion
of a project deliverable or fulfillment of other project requirements.
• Nominal group technique
• Idea/mind mapping
• Affinity diagram
• Multicriteria decision analysis
Unanimity (Delphi tech.)
The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments
• Business requirements, including:
- Business and project objectives for traceability;
- Business rules for the performing organization;
- Guiding principles of the organization.
• Stakeholder requirements, including:
- Impacts to other organizational areas;
- Impacts to other entities inside or outside the performing organization;
- Stakeholder communication and reporting requirements.
• Solution requirements, including:
- Functional and nonfunctional requirements;
- Technology and standard compliance requirements;
- Support and training requirements;
- Quality requirements; and
- Reporting requirements, etc. (solution requirements can be documented textually, in models, or both).
• Project requirements, such as:
- Levels of service, performance, safety, compliance, etc.;
- Acceptance criteria.
• Transition requirements.
• Requirements assumptions, dependencies, and constraints.
Links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them.
Finally, it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.
Tracing includes, but is not limited to, tracing requirements for the following:
• Business needs, opportunities, goals, and objectives;
• Project objectives;
• Project scope/WBS deliverables;
• Product design;
• Product development;
• Test strategy and test scenarios; and
• High-level requirements to more detailed requirements.
Analysis of alternatives
The WORK PACKAGE is the work defined at the lowest level of the WBS for which cost and duration can be estimated and managed.
Decomposition of the total project work into work packages generally involves the following activities:
• Identifying and analyzing the deliverables and related work;
• Structuring and organizing the WBS;
• Decomposing the upper WBS levels into lower-level detailed components;
• Developing and assigning identification codes to the WBS components; and
• Verifying that the degree of decomposition of the deliverables is appropriate.
Is the approved version of a scope statement, Work Breakdown Structure, and its associated WBS dictionary
Project Scope Statetmen
Description of the project scope
○○ Code of account identifier,
○○ Description of work,
○○ Assumptions and constraints,
○○ Responsible organization,
○○ Schedule milestones,
○○ Associated schedule activities,
○○ Resources required,
○○ Cost estimates,
○○ Quality requirements,
○○ Acceptance criteria,
○○ Technical references,
○○ Agreement information.
Validate Scope is the process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables.
The Validate Scope process DIFFERS from the Control Quality process in that the former is primarily concerned with acceptance of the deliverables, while quality control is primarily concerned with correctness of the deliverables and meeting the quality requirements specified for the deliverables.
Control Quality is generally performed BEFORE Validate Scope, although the two processes may be performed in parallel.
Unanimity (Delphi tech.)
Deliverables that meet the acceptance criteria are formally signed off and approved by the customer or sponsor.
Variance analysis is a technique for determining the cause and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance.
Project performance measurements are used to assess the magnitude of variation from the original scope baseline.
Important aspects of project scope control include determining the cause and degree of variance relative to the scope baseline (Section 188.8.131.52) and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required.
CHAPTER 4. Integration
CHAPTER 5. Scope
CHAPTER 7. Cost
CHAPTER 6. Time
CHAPTER 12. Procurement
CHAPTER 8. Quality
CHAPTER 10. Communications
CHAPTER 9. Human Resource
CHAPTER 13. Stakholder
CHAPTER 11. Risk
The Plan Schedule Management process may involve choosing strategic options to estimate and schedule the project such as:
scheduling tools and techniques
project management software
The schedule management plan may also detail ways to fast track or crash (Section 184.108.40.206) the project schedule such as undertaking work in parallel. These decisions, like other schedule decisions affecting the project, may affect project risks.
Organizational policies and procedures may influence which scheduling techniques are employed in these decisions.
Techniques may include, but are not limited to, rolling wave planning (Section 220.127.116.11), leads and lags (Section 18.104.22.168), alternatives analysis (Section 22.214.171.124), and methods for reviewing schedule performance (Section 126.96.36.199).
• Project schedule model development: The scheduling methodology and the scheduling tool.
• Level of accuracy: The acceptable range used in determining realistic activity duration estimates is specified and may include an amount for contingencies.
• Units of measure: for each of the resources.
• Organizational procedures links. The WBS (Section 5.4) provides the framework for the schedule management plan, allowing for consistency with the estimates and resulting schedules.
• Project schedule model maintenance. The process used to update the status and record progress of the project.
• Control thresholds. Thresholds are percentage deviations from the parameters established in the baseline plan. May be specified to indicate an agreed-upon amount of variation to be allowed before some action needs to be taken.
• Rules of performance measurement. Earned value management (EVM) rules or other physical measurement.
• Reporting formats. The formats and frequency for the various schedule reports are defined.
• Process descriptions. Descriptions of each of the schedule management processes are documented.
It is a form of progressive elaboration.
During early strategic planning, when information is less defined, work packages may be decomposed to the known level of detail. As more is known about the upcoming events in the near term, work packages can be decomposed into activities.
Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports.
During the initial stages of the project: the activity identifier (ID), WBS ID, and activity label or name
When completed: activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags (Section 188.8.131.52), resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions.
Can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place .
Level of effort (LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort
Scope of work description (work is required to be completed)
F to S
S to S
Hand vs Automated
Make, rent or buy
Most likely (tM)
or Estimation (PERT)=
float = 0
WHAT-IF scenario analysis
Simulation (Monte Carlo)
CRASHING: +Resources & + Costs
FAST TRACKING: +Risks
Project Schedule Network Diagrams
Critical Path method
Critical Chain method
Earned value management (SV / SPI)
OTHERS, ricks, communications
Choose strategic option to fund:
Funding with equity
Funding with debt
Return on investment
Internal rate of return
Discounted cash flow
Net present value,....
Units of measure
Level of precision
Level of accuracy: acceptable range (+-%) realistic cost estimates
Organizational procedures links: WBS component (called control account) have one account number linked to the performing organization's accounting system
Control thresholds: agreed-upon amount of variation before some action are taken
Earned Value rules of performance measurement:
Which measurement of control accounts will be performed
EV measurement techniques (milestones, fixed-formula, percent complete, etc.)
Tracking methodologies, equations for calculating EAC.
Description of strategic funding choices
Procedure to account for fluctuations in currency exchange rates
Procedure for project cost recording
Published commercial information
Published seller price lists
Cost estimating policies
Cost estimating templates
Project Scope Statement
Uses values from similar project for estimate the same measurement for a current project
Uses a statistical relationship between relevant historical data and others variables
The detailed cost is summarized (rolled-up) to higher levels for subsequent reporting and tracking purposes
or Estimation (PERT)=
Nominal group techniques
How the estimate was developed
All assumptions made
Any know constraints
Range of values of possible estimates
Confidence level of the final estimate
Formal and informal cost budgeting-related and guidelines
Cost budgeting tools
Activity cost estimates
Project schedule, ....
Basis of estimates
Causes of variances
Corrective action chosen and the reasons
Lessons learned from project cost control
PREVENTION OVER INSPECTION
CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT (plan-do-check-act _ PDCA)
COST OF QUALITY (COQ)
OTHER MANAGEMENT PLANS
ORGANIZATIONAL QUALITY POLICIES, PROCEDURES & GUIDELINES
LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUS PHASES OR PROJECTS
government AGENCY REGULATIONS
RULES, STANDARDS & GUIDELINES
WORKING, OPERATION CONDITIONS OR DELIVERABLES
COMPARES THE COST OF THE QUALITY STEP TO THE EXPECTED BENEFIT
INCREASED STAKEHOLDER SATISFACTION
FISHBONE OR ISHIKAWA DIAGRAMS
Joseph Juran: First Quality theory
W. Edwards Deming: P-D-C-A Plan-Do-Check-Act
Philip Crosby: inspection “zero defects”
GOLD PLATING: NOT adds quality over product
CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT (KAIZEN): Mejorar con pequeños pasos (Japón)
JUST IN TIME (JIT): NON STOCK
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM): Perform Quality Assurance
RESPONSIBILITY FOR QUALITY: PROJECT MANAGER is responsable of product or project quality, the employe is responsable of work quality.
FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS
NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUE
QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL TOOLS
PROCESS BOUNDARIES (start & end)
TARGETS FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE
Responsability asigment matrix
WBS and WBS Dictionary
Identify best practices
Idenfity nonconformity, gaps & shortcomings
Proactively offer assistance
Highligt contributions in lessons learned
Identify needed improvements
Examines problems experienced
Identify Non-value-added activities
Includes Root Cause Analysis
identify a problem
discover the underlying causes
develop preventive actions
Quality management plan
Scope management plan
Schedule management plan
Cost management plan
Quality audit reports
Planned vs actual technical performance
Planned vs actual schedule performance
Planned vs actual cost performance
Quality audit reports ( i/ change logs & corrective action plans)
Training plans and assessments of effectiveness
Process documentation obtained using quality tools
The organization's quality standards and policies
Standard work guidelines
Issue and defect reporting procedures
Lessons learned documentation
Quality audit reports
Quality management plan
Process improvement plan
CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM: (ISHIKAWA diagram or FISBONE diagram):
The problem statement placed at the head of the fishbone is used as a starting point to trace the problem’s source back to its actionable root cause
The causes are found by looking at the problem statement and asking “why”
Often prove useful in linking the undesirable effects seen as special variation to the assignable cause upon which project teams should implement corrective actions to eliminate the special variation detected in a control chart.
UWL Control Limit
LWL Control Limit
+- 1 sigma = 68,26%
+- 2 sigma = 95,46%
+- 3 sigma = 99,73%
+- 6 sigma = 99,99985%
–Determinasiun procesotieneunafuentede problemasquegenera unaproducción“fuerade control”.
–Assess whether the changes implemented resulted in the desired improvements by monitoring the output of a process over time.
Display the sequence of steps and the branching possibilities that exist for a process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more outputs
Use the workflow branching logic and associated relative frequencies to estimate expected monetary value for the conformance and nonconformance work required to deliver the expected conforming output.
May prove useful in understanding and estimating the cost of quality in a process.
Show the activities, decision points, branching loops, parallel paths, and the overall order of processing by mapping the operational details of procedures that exist within a horizontal value chain of a SIPOC model
PARETO DIAGRAM: (vertical bar chart):
Identify the vital few sources that are responsible for causing most of a problem's effects
The categories shown on H. axis exist as a valid probability distribution that accounts for 100% of the possible observations
It will be organized into categories that measure either frequencies or consequences
Identify a product or service so that improve its quality
Systematic analysis of problems or causes
Main causes of problems and to priority the solutions
Special photograph of "before vs. after" analysis
Describe the central tendency, dispersion, and shape of a statistical distribution
Not consider the influence of time on the variation existent within a distribution
Show the event of a success
Show tendencies, variances, improve of process within time
Monitor of work develop, cost, time, etc....
SCATTER DIAGRAM (correlation chart):
Explain a change in the dependent variable (Y), in relationship to a change observed in the corresponding independent variable (X)
Estimate how a change to the independent variable will influence the value of the dependent variable
CHECKSHEETS (Tally sheets):
Use to organize facts in a manner that will facilitate the effective collection of useful data about a potencial quality problem
Data about the frequencies or consequences of defects collected in checksheets are often displayed using Pareto diagrams.
The project life cycle and the processes that will be applied
How work will be executed to accomplish the project objectives
A change manag. plan_changes will be monitored & controlled
A configuration management plan
How integrity of the project baselines will be maintained
Needs and methods of communication among stakeholders
Organizational culture and structure
Existing human resources
Geographical dispersion of team members
Personnel administration policies
Organizational standard processes, policies and role descriptions
Templates for organizational charts and position descriptions
Lessons learned on organizational structures that have worked in previous projects
Escalation procedures for handling issues within the team and within the performing organizational
OBS_organizational breakdown structure
RBS_resource breakdown structure
RAM_responsibility assignment matrix