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Humanistic Approach & Carl Rogers Person Centred Theory

Higher Psychology

shelley ferguson

on 19 November 2012

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Transcript of Humanistic Approach & Carl Rogers Person Centred Theory

Higher Psychology Humanism Humanistic Approach Humanism, Humanistic, Humanist all mean the same thing Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving. Maslow ands claytons ERG theory
(existance, relateness and growth) Humanistic Approach summary It is the study of the uniqueness of humans
It recognises the whole person It is a subjective analysis of each individuals experince It celebrates the human quality of free will and our never ending motivation to develop the actualising tendency- a basic human drive 1943

Key Features

•Qualitative Research
•Idiographic Approach
•Self Concept (e.g. self-worth, self-image, self actualization)
•Holism (e.g. study to whole person)
•Hierarchy of needs
•Free Will

Basic Assumptions

•Humans have free will; not all behavior is determined.
•All individuals are unique and have an innate (inborn) drive to achieve their maximum potential.
•A proper understanding of human behavior can only be achieved by studying humans - not animals.
•Psychology should study the individual case (idiographic) rather than the average performance of groups (nomothetic).

complete exercise P81 Carl Rogers Humanistic psychologists assume that every person has their own unique way of perceiving and understanding the world and that the things they do only make sense in this light.
The priority of humanistic psychologists is to understand people’s subjectivity, asking ‘what is it like to be this person?’
As a result, they reject the objective scientific method of studying people and their behaviour. Methodology Humanistic psychologists prefer qualitative methods
Unstructured interviewing- This allows access to other people’s views and experiences without imposing on them the researcher’s ideas about what is important.
Participant observation- This is where the researcher takes part in what the participants are studying in order to understand how their participants perceive it.
Diaries, letters and biographical material- Humanistic psychologists may also analyse all sorts of other qualitative materials that allow them insight into how people understand their world. Methodology (Continued) Person-Centered Therapy was created by Carl Rogers (1951), to deal with the ways in which people perceive themselves consciously rather than having a therapist try to interpret unconscious thoughts or ideas.
Self-Concept: An individual’s concept of the Self as it is currently, consciously experienced. Roger’s believes to understand the Self is central to understanding human personality.
Ideal Self: The Self-Concept that an individual would most like to have.
In other words, individuals who are happy and at ease with themselves have a much smaller gap between the self-concept and ideal self, than those who are unhappy with themselves. Methodology- Carl Rogers’ Person-Centred Therapy There are three critical attitudes or values in Person or Client-Centred Therapy:
Unconditional Positive Regard (The need to be liked and respected by others, without any strings attached)
Positive Self-Regard (The need to like and respect oneself)
Empathy (Identification with and understanding of another's situation, feelings, and motives)
Genuineness or Congruence (harmony or agreement between the self-concept and ideal self)
Actualising Tendency ( the need to be open to experience and to express one’s own true self)
Q-Sort Method ( A test to assess the self-concept and the ideal self, which comprises of sorting through descriptive statements written on cards)
Video Clip: Let’s hear about it from the man himself! Person-Centred Therapy: Key Terms Strengths
The humanistic approach emphasises important human motives, which had been ignored by many previous theorists. E.g. believing in concepts like self-actualisation for better self-esteem.
It deals with major issues relating to our sense of ourselves and what we are trying to accomplish in life.
It values the rights we deem every human individual needs for their psychological wellbeing. Evaluating the Humanistic Approach Weaknesses
The strong reliance of people’s accounts of their experiences and thoughts means that processes lying below the level of conscious awareness are ignored.
The contributions made by genetic factors and childhood experiences to personality development are also largely ignored.
Some of the concepts in this approach (e.g. Maslow’s Self-Actualisation) are hard to measure and therefore vague.
Carl Rogers assumed that nearly everyone has a basically good nature, with problems and disturbances occurring due to particular experiences or influence by others. Many argue that such assumptions are too optimistic! Evaluating the Humanistic Approach Complete exercises Page 86, Page 87, Page 88
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