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Challenges Digest: Freshwater
Transcript of Challenges Digest: Freshwater
- Waste water and storm water
- Eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs
- Public health problems
Challenges Digest: Freshwater Resources
So what is the problem??
2 million deaths (mostly children) traceable to simple sanitation
More Efficient Irrigation Equipment
Salt and Brackish Water Irrigation
Selectively Modified Crops
A Systems Perspective
Not too Hot
+ Not too Cold
= Liquid Water
+ Planetary rotation
+ Magnetic pull
+ A bunch of other factors
(moon, atmosphere, etc.)
97.5% of water is salt water
Leaving only 2.5% exists as freshwater
Most of that freshwater is locked in
the polar/alpine ice caps.....
....meaning that .5% of all freshwater is
easy accessible in the form of rivers (USGS)
Human population growth
+ Cultural paradigm
= Intense competition for freshwater resources
“Whiskey is for drinking,
water is for fighting over.”
Freshwater shoud be treated as a
Often not enough water for all uses, whether agricultural, industrial or domestic
Rarely (if ever!) possible to satisfy competing demands in an
70% of freshwater is diverted to agriculture
Runoff harms freshwater ecosystems
Team Winemem Wintu:
Eric Botcher, Cheryl Dorsey, Farris Galyon, Hannah Greinetz, Cina Loarie and Tim Shaw
Stop Industrial Discharge
Waste Water Reclamation Facilities
Water Pollution Legislation & Regs
Water Pricing Reforms
Causes & Drivers
20% of freshwater = withdrawl & use (cooling, solvent, transport, etc) + effluent discharge
Extreme lack of coherent guidelines, monitoring, and enforcement around impact on water systems
All energy production (solar, gas, nuclear, coal) uses water directly or indirectly
Dams cause loss of floodplains, riparian zones, & wetlands - important parts of the freshwater cycle
Water is diverted from distant locations to cities
Claims to water rights are highly politicized
Cities produce toxic wastewater
A few challanges...
Meadows, D. (2008). Thinking in Systems. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing.
Shiklomanov, I. A., (1998). World water resources: A new appraisal and assessment for the 21st century. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 34-35.
Seametrics Blog. (April 27, 2012). 5 Effective Water Conservation Tools For Farmers. Retrieved September 8, 2013 from http://www.seametrics.com/blog
Pfister, S., Bayer, P., Koehler, A., & Hellweg, S. (2011). Environmental Impacts of Water Use in Global Crop Production: Hotspots and Trade-Offs with Land Use, Environmental Science & Technology, 45, 5767.
United States Geological Survey Water Science School. (2013). Where is Earth's water? Retrieved on September 10, 2013 from http://ga.water.usgs. gov/edu/earthwherewater.html
Water.org. (2013). Water facts: Water. Retrieved September 10, 2013 from http://water.org/water-crisis/water-facts/water
DeVilliers, M. (1999). Water: The fate of our most precious resource. Toronto: Stoddart Publishing Company.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2012). United Nations World Water Development Report, 4th Edition. Retrieved on September 10, 2013 from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/water/wwap/wwdr/wwdr4-2012
2.7 BILLION people have limited access to clean water for at least part of the year
By 2025, 2/3 of the human population will have no access to clean water
Without water, THERE IS NO LIFE