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Challenges Digest: Freshwater

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by

Eric Botcher

on 31 January 2015

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Transcript of Challenges Digest: Freshwater

- Freshwater augmentation
- Waste water and storm water
- Eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs
- Public health problems
Challenges Digest: Freshwater Resources
Problems
So what is the problem??
Impacts
2 million deaths (mostly children) traceable to simple sanitation
Looking Ahead
Agricultural Solutions:
More Efficient Irrigation Equipment
Soil Management
Water Recycling
Salt and Brackish Water Irrigation
Selectively Modified Crops
A Systems Perspective
Liquid Water:
A Miracle!?!
Earth
Not too Hot
+ Not too Cold
= Liquid Water
+ Planetary rotation
+ Magnetic pull
+ A bunch of other factors
(moon, atmosphere, etc.)
97.5% of water is salt water
Leaving only 2.5% exists as freshwater
Most of that freshwater is locked in
the polar/alpine ice caps.....
....meaning that .5% of all freshwater is
easy accessible in the form of rivers (USGS)
Human population growth
+ Cultural paradigm
= Intense competition for freshwater resources
“Whiskey is for drinking,
water is for fighting over.”
~Mark Twain
Freshwater shoud be treated as a
scarce
resource

Often not enough water for all uses, whether agricultural, industrial or domestic
Rarely (if ever!) possible to satisfy competing demands in an
equitable
way.
AGRICULTURE
70% of freshwater is diverted to agriculture
Runoff harms freshwater ecosystems

Team Winemem Wintu:
Eric Botcher, Cheryl Dorsey, Farris Galyon, Hannah Greinetz, Cina Loarie and Tim Shaw

Industrial Solutions:
Stop Industrial Discharge
Desalination Facilities
Waste Water Reclamation Facilities
Water Pollution Legislation & Regs
Water Pricing Reforms
Product Labeling
Individual Solutions:
Conservation
Education/PSA
Donate
Causes & Drivers
INDUSTRY
20% of freshwater = withdrawl & use (cooling, solvent, transport, etc) + effluent discharge
Extreme lack of coherent guidelines, monitoring, and enforcement around impact on water systems
ENERGY
All energy production (solar, gas, nuclear, coal) uses water directly or indirectly
Dams cause loss of floodplains, riparian zones, & wetlands - important parts of the freshwater cycle
HUMAN SETTLEMENT
Water is diverted from distant locations to cities
Claims to water rights are highly politicized
Cities produce toxic wastewater
A few challanges...
References:

Meadows, D. (2008). Thinking in Systems. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing.


Shiklomanov, I. A., (1998). World water resources: A new appraisal and assessment for the 21st century. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 34-35.


Seametrics Blog. (April 27, 2012). 5 Effective Water Conservation Tools For Farmers. Retrieved September 8, 2013 from http://www.seametrics.com/blog


Pfister, S., Bayer, P., Koehler, A., & Hellweg, S. (2011). Environmental Impacts of Water Use in Global Crop Production: Hotspots and Trade-Offs with Land Use, Environmental Science & Technology, 45, 5767.


United States Geological Survey Water Science School. (2013). Where is Earth's water? Retrieved on September 10, 2013 from http://ga.water.usgs. gov/edu/earthwherewater.html


Water.org. (2013). Water facts: Water. Retrieved September 10, 2013 from http://water.org/water-crisis/water-facts/water

DeVilliers, M. (1999). Water: The fate of our most precious resource. Toronto: Stoddart Publishing Company.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2012). United Nations World Water Development Report, 4th Edition. Retrieved on September 10, 2013 from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/water/wwap/wwdr/wwdr4-2012
MAJOR PROBLEMS
2.7 BILLION people have limited access to clean water for at least part of the year
By 2025, 2/3 of the human population will have no access to clean water
Without water, THERE IS NO LIFE
Full transcript