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Transcript of Korea
presented by Karis Kim
Korea is located on the Korean Peninsula in North-East Asia.
To the northwest, the Amnok River (Yalu River) separates Korea from China and to the northeast, the Duman River (Tumen River) separates Korea from China and Russia.
The peninsula is surrounded by the Yellow Sea to the west, the East China Sea and Korea Strait to the south, and the East Sea.
Notable islands include Jeju Island (Jejudo), Ulleung Island (Ulleungdo), and Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks) .
The total area of the peninsula, including the islands, is 22,154 square kilometers.
The Southern and Western regions of Korea are mostly composed of plains, however the Eastern and Northern regions are mountainous.
Korea has topography that East is high and West is low.
It is surrounded by three oceans-the East sea, the Yellow(West) sea and the South sea.(Korean peninsula)
70% of our country consists of mountain areas.
The plains are mostly located on the West and South.
The eastern coast of Korea includes just a few plains, and it is deep.
The southern coast of Korea has tangled coastline and many islands.
The western coast has about 45m depth, it has high tides.
The number of the islands in Korea is 3,215.
The highest mountain in Korea is called Mount Paektu or Paektusan (2,744m). The second highest mountain is Gwanmobong (2,541m), and the third highest one is Buksubaeksan (2,522m).
Mount Sobaek (1,439m)
Mount Jiri (1,915m)
Mount Taebaek (1,567m)
Mount Kumgang (1,638m)
Mount Seorak (1,708m)
The southern extension of Mount Paektu is a highland called Gaema Heights.
This highland was mainly raised during the Cenozoic orogeny and partly covered by volcanic matter.
This mountain range is called 'The roof of Korea'
Korea is located between 33 and 43 degrees northern latitude of the eastern shore in Asiatic Continent
Has four seasons (Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter) ,and the climate belongs in the temperate climate or cool temperate climate.
In winter, the northwest monsoons blow from the Siberian Continent. In summer, the southeast monsoons, the humid and warm winds, blow from the Pacific Ocean.
Precipitation is mostly heavy in summer. The rainy season generally starts at this time.
The population of Korea is about 51,395,238
Currently, South Korea is ranked 26th in the world in population size.
This pyramid graph shows the population of men and women
These days, the main problems of the population are 'Low birhthrate and aging society'
The birthrate is decreasing
We need to support the welfare facilities for pregnant women.
Korean government is trying to resolve these population problems.
It shows the trend of the age of population
The judges of the Constitutional Court are partially appointed by the executive, and partially by the legislature. Likewise, when a resolution of impeachment is passed by the legislature, it is sent to the judiciary for a final decision.
The legislative branch consists of the National Assembly of South Korea.
The National Assembly of Korea is the only main agent legislation as a representative of people.
Most of its 300 members are elected from single-member constituencies; however, 56 are elected through proportional representation.
The members of the National Assembly serve for four years
The members belong to the standing committee and there are 16 standing committee.(and also there is special committee)
It includes the Secretariat of the National Assembly,the library, the Budget Settlement Committee and the legislative investigation committee.
The president is head of government, state and commander in chief of Korea.
elected by the people.
The Cabinet is the highest body for policy deliberation and resolution in the executive branch of the Republic of Korea.
composed of between 15 and 30 members including the Chairperson, and currently the Cabinet includes the President, the Prime Minister, the Vice Prime Minister, and the cabinet-level ministers of the 17 ministries.
The official residence and office of the President of the Republic of Korea is Cheongwadae , located in Jongno-gu, Seoul. The name "Cheongwadae" literally means "the house with blue-tiled roof".
The judicial branch includes the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court, regional appellate courts, and local district, branch, municipal, and specialized courts. All courts are under the jurisdiction of the national judiciary
The Supreme Court is the head of the judicial branch of government and the final court of appeal for all cases in South Korean law.
The Constitutional Court, independent from the Supreme Court, is charged purely with constitutional review and with deciding cases of impeachment.
Holidays of korea
history of Korea
According to the mythic account recounted in the Samguk Yusa, the Gojoseon (Old Joseon) kingdom was founded in northern Korea and Manchuria in 2333 BC. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 12th century BC, and its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. The written historical record on Gojoseon can be found from early 7th Century BC. The Jin state was formed in southern Korea by the 3rd century BC. In the 2nd century BC, Gija Joseon was replaced by Wiman Joseon which fell to the Han China near the end of the century. This resulted in the fall of Gojoseon and led to succeeding warring states, the Proto–Three Kingdoms period that spanned the later Iron Age.
Since the 1st century, Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla grew to control the peninsula and Manchuria as the Three Kingdoms (57 BC - 668 AD) until unification by Silla in 676.
In 698, Dae Jo-yeong established Balhae in old territories of Goguryeo,which led to the North South States Period (698–926).
In the late 9th century, Silla was divided into the Later Three Kingdoms (892–936), which ended with the unification by Wang Geon's Goryeo Dynasty.
Meanwhile Balhae fell after an invasion by the Khitan Liao Dynasty and the refugees including the last Crown Prince emigrated to Goryeo.
During the Goryeo period, laws were codified, a civil service system was introduced, and culture influenced by Buddhism flourished.
In 1392, Yi Seong-gye established the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910),named in honor of the ancient kingdom Gojoseon and based on idealistic Confucianism-based ideology after a coup in 1388. Taejo moved the capital to Hanyang (modern-day Seoul) and built Gyeongbokgung palace.
King Sejong the Great (1418–1450) implemented numerous administrative, social, and economical reforms, established royal authority in the early years of the dynasty, and promulgated Hangul, the Korean alphabet.
Korea's culture was based on the philosophy of Neo-Confucianism, which emphasizes morality, righteousness, and practical ethics. Wide interest in scholarly study resulted in the establishment of private academies and educational institutions. Many documents were written about history, geography, medicine, and Confucian principles. The arts flourished in painting, calligraphy, music, dance, and ceramics.
During Joseon Dynasty, a social hierarchy system existed that greatly affected Korea's social development.
The king and the royal family were atop the hereditary system, with the next tier being a class of civil or military officials and land owners known as yangban, who worked for the government and lived off the efforts of tenant farmers and slaves.
A middle class, jungin, were technical specialists such as scribes, medical officers, technicians in science-related fields, artists and musicians.
Commoners, i.e. peasants, constituted the largest class in Korea. They had obligations to pay taxes, provide labor, and serve in the military.
The lowest class included tenant farmers, slaves, entertainers, craftsmen, prostitutes, laborers, shamans, vagabonds, outcasts, and criminals.
The Kings of Joseon
From the late 16th century, the Joseon dynasty faced foreign invasions, internal power struggle and rebellions.
Support from China, particularly militarily, became increasingly important to maintaining rule, and the dynasty maintained a strict isolationist policy to all countries except China.
By the 19th century, with the country unwilling to modernize, and the decline of China due largely to European powers, Korea became subject to foreign powers.
In 1895, Empress Myeonseong was assassinated by Japanese killers.
After Japan defeated China, a brief period of independence and reform occurred. This was known as the Korean Empire (1897–1910).
This state was quickly dominated by Russia, and when Japan defeated Russia, they forced Korea to sign a protectorate treaty and in 1910 Japan annexed the Korean Empire, though all treaties involved were later deemed to be invalid.
Japanese colonial era
Japan set out to repress Korean traditions and culture, develop and implement policies primarily for the Japanese benefit.
European-styled transport and communication networks were established across the nation in order to extract the resources and labor
The Japanese removed the Joseon hierarchy, destroyed much of the Gyeongbokgung palace and replaced it with the Government office building.
After Emperor Gojong died in January 1919, with rumors of poisoning, independence rallies against Japanese invaders took place nationwide on 1 March 1919 (the March 1st Movement). This movement was suppressed by force and about 7,000 were killed by Japanese soldiers and police.
The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was established in Shanghai, China,
The Korean language was banned, Koreans were forced to adopt Japanese names, and newspapers were prohibited from publishing in Korean. Numerous Korean cultural artifacts were destroyed or taken to Japan. According to an investigation by the South Korean government, 75,311 cultural assets were taken from Korea..
During World War II, Tens of thousands of men were conscripted into Japan's military. Also, around 200,000 girls and women, some from Korea, were taken as "comfort women". Previous Korean "comfort women" are still protesting against the Japanese Government for compensation of their sufferings.
After the defeat of Japan in 1945, the country was divided into a northern area, protected by the Soviets, and a southern area protected primarily by the United States of America.
In 1948, when the powers failed to agree on the formation of a single government, this partition became the modern states of North and South Korea.
The "Republic of Korea" was created in the south with the backing of the USA and Western Europe and the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea" in the north with the backing of the Soviets and the communist "Peoples Republic of China" divided at the 38th parallel.
The unresolved tensions of the division surfaced in the Korean War of 1950.
While the war was quite costly and fortunes varied, ultimately the war concluded with the peninsula at its pre-war borders.
This conflict ended with a cease-fire in 1953, but the two nations officially remain at war because a peace treaty was never signed. Both states were accepted into the United Nations in 1991.
education in Korea
The zeal for children's education in Korea is quite high.
The school grades
Many students in Korea start kindergarten at the Western age of three and will therefore continue to study in kindergarten for three or four years, before starting primary school.
Primary school consists of grades one to six (age 8 to age 13 in Korean years
primary students usually attend the academies for extra study.
Middle schools in South Korea consist of three grades. Most students enter at age 13 or 14 and graduate at age 16.
Most middle school students take seven lessons a day(8:30am~4:30pm.)
More than 95% of the middle school students also attend after-school tutoring agencies known as hagwon, and many receive extra instruction from private tutors.
High schools in South Korea teach students for three years; first grade (age 17),second grade(age 18)and third grade (age 19), and students commonly graduate at age 18 or 19.
Many high school students wake and leave home in the morning at 5am or 6am and return home after studying well after 10 pm, from Monday to Friday and also they often study on weekends.
There are vocational high schools,special-purpose high schools.
Make an effort to be able to enter attractive universities, such as the top SKY (Seoul National, Korea, and Yonsei Universities).
Students have the option of participating in eitherㄱearly decision plans for college or regular admissions.
Students will have to take the College Scholastic Ability Test (called Su-neung).
The Korean College Scholastic Ability Test has five sections: Language Ability, Mathematical Ability, First Foreign Language Ability (English), various "elective" subjects in the social and physical sciences, and 'Second Foreign Languages or Chinese Characters and Classics'
a traditional fermented Korean side dish made of vegetables with a variety of seasonings.
The types of Kimchi are more than 60.
Most Korean have a Kimchi refrigerator.
it refers to either an elaborate Korean dish consisting of nine different foods assorted on a wooden plate with nine divided sections in an octagon shape or the plate itself.
ㅑit's made from thin slices of sirloin or other prime cuts of beef.
Before cooking, the meat is marinated to enhance its flavour and tenderness with a mixture of soy sauce, sugar, sesame oil, garlic, pepper, and other ingredients such as scallions, ginger, onions or mushrooms, especially white button mushrooms.
served as a bowl of warm white rice topped with seasoned vegetables and gochujang(chili pepper paste), soy sauce, or doenjang, a salty soybean paste.
Famous tourism in korea
With art galleries, traditional craft stores, antique art dealers, traditional tea houses, and traditional restaurants, it is simply the place in Seoul for tourists wanting to experience traditional Korea.
It was the main residence and palace of the royal family during the Joseon Dynasty
(495,000㎡ area) 'Geunjeongjeon', the main hall where official ceremonies took place and government officials could see the King
The 'Gyeonghoeru', where banquets were given for diplomatic reaons.
'Hyangwonjeong', an artificial island created inside a pond.
UNESCO World Heritage
the representative stone temple of Korea.
known to have been built with Bulguksa Temple.
an artificial stone temple made of granite, and is located on the eastern peak of Mt. Toham. Inside the round-shaped main hall, there are the Bonjon Statue, Bodhi-sattva and his disciples.
Andong Hahoe folk village
it's also UNESCO World Heritage.
The village is a valuable part of Korean culture because it preserves Joseon period-style architecture, folk traditions, valuable books, and an old tradition of clan-based villages.
Famous for its jade-colored waters
located in Jeju Islands
an astronomical observatory in Gyeongju, South Korea
means star-gazing tower in Korean
the oldest surviving observatory in East Asia.
the country's 31st national treasure
These are about the
DOKDO is the Korean territory since 512 A.D. 토로 표시
French geographer Danvil indicated Dokdo as a Korean territory in his "complete map of Joseon Kingdom"
Ancient Japanese documents and maps registered that Dokdo was a Korean territory ·울릉도를 한국 영토로 재확인
In the end of the 17th century, Japanese government confirmed Dokdo as Korean territory지 정부·울릉도를 한국 영토로 확인
In the 19th century Japanese Meyji Government issued an official document confirming that Dokdo and Ulungdo Islands belonged to Korean territory.를 한국 영토로 재확인
Japanese secret service also confirmed Dokdo as Koren territory 토로 결
The highest government organization in Japan (Daejungkwan) decided that Dokdo had to be a Korean territory 도·울릉도를 한국 영토로 정확히 표시
In the end of 19th century Korean empire indicated Dokdo as the Korean territory.
In 1900 Korean empire in the royal order No 41 proclaimed to the whole world that Dokdo is a Korean territory.
Now they are arguing that Dokdo is their territory because Japan occupied Dokdo in 1905 by force. But it was illegal way so it doesn't count at all