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Transcript of Phonetics
an’e mayda funnysown iniz ed
anda gul unerstud wa de sed
anshe gayv sum unny tuda bair
an’e gayver su’munny t’be fair
den’e edded owtda sto tuiz ows
an’e putsa muv dat unny inda mowz
uviz pitti-ittle cubz in air den
anda gul wuz juz fyne … andat ze en. Well...sounds are like that, too. very precise So? Yeah... when people study language they have to be precise
about sounds to get it right Because SOUNDS are NOT the same as LETTERS. so linguists need a way to make the right sound whether it's spelled like this /f/ as in eFFect /f/ as in touGH /f/ as in elePHant OR /f/ as in to deal with these difficulties linguists
have made a special sound alphabet -
one symbol per sound - no switching - called the International Phonetic Alphabet can you read it? "you should learn not to make personal remarks," Alice said with some severity, "it's very rude." The International Phonetic Alphabet, that is. Wanna see it? and that's not all [fe'netiks] the take away every sound you make (but not the dog, probably) has been defined, and when you can break the code you can make the right sounds in ANY language Just listen to this...
inna dok woom air wuzza bair
wuzza bair inna woom! e wuz der!
e wuz der getin unny foriz kubz
cuziz kubz lykin unny -- es ay duz! DA GUL ANDA BAIR inda woom wida bair air wuzza gul
da gul wuzza pitti-ittle gul
da gul kudnasee datol bair
da gul dihna no e wuz der wa’append widda gul anda bair?
diday me tinda dok - diday kair?
didda gul tuchiz bak, gettaskair?
kudda bair kyna smelatshe wuz der? To be continued... In languages, there is usually a range of acceptable sounds for each phoneme - slightly changing the sound won't change the meaning. These variations are called ALLOPHONES. In the story, a /w/ sound stood in for an /r/ at the beginning of a word. Although it's not a real allophone (which are much more subtle), it's a good example of how different the sound can be and still be understood. FUN FACT: In Hindi and Urdu, /w/ and /v/ are allophones not phonemes, which means they're thought of as the same sound. When Hindi-Urdu speakers learn English, the difference is hard to learn! Say "night rate". Now say "nitrate". Sound different? That's an allophone! (Except in linguistic terms, the word for "sounds" is "phones". So...) it's the phones and I don't mean cell phones Every sound is a phone.
Sounds that are meaningful in a
language are called phonemes. American English has about 25 consonant phonemes and 24 vowel phonemes. And spelling can only get you so far... weldawoom wuzzasto foda unny
da gul so’da unny foda munny
wenda gul sawda bair inda sto
shesed, “bair, wadidiz yulukin fo?”
corsda bair kudna tok tuda gul
cuz bairz kanna tok inda wul
so’e stud onniz fee tandiz klawz
an’e poyntedatda unny widiz pawz ...da stowee kuntinyuz. phones = sounds
phonemes = meaningful sounds in a language
allophones = range of possible sounds for one phoneme Each and every existing phone can be taught and learned as a physical skill. The study of sound patterns in languages is phonology. studied, and codified. The symbol system for writing
phones is the International Phonetic Alphabet. Now izzenat kyna... SWEET?? Fun fact: Spanish only has 20 consonant phonemes and ONLY 5 vowels! a, e, i, o, u
el burro sabe más que tú! What is a phone?
What is a phoneme?
What is an allophone?
What is the study of sounds in languages called?
Why did they make the International Phonetic Alphabet? Quiz Write your name using
the International Phonetic Alphabet. Activity Let's take a closer look at those vowels. cat
cure the /p/ in "pop" vs. the /p/ in spoon the /g/ in "ugh" vs. the /g/ in "girl" Fun fact: In Arabic, there are two versions of many consonants - the front of the mouth version and the back of the throat.
And they're not allophones - they're phonemes.
That means the difference matters and if you do the wrong one, you might get a different word.
For example, /ti:n/ means "figs" and /Ti:n/ means "mud" and only the /t/ sound is different.
You try it! Try and write a sentence how it sounds with no regard to words or spelling. It's hard! Especially if you want it to sound exactly the same no matter who is reading. You have to transcribe your accent. In Minnesota:
"Soo I was walkin to my booat with my (g)cow"
"I was 'avin kawffee wid my ma"
In North Carolina
"Ah nevuh did see such a saht"
...well, let's see it. IT'S IN BRITISH!
(The 'r's give it away.) "labios" = lips "dientes" = teeth What might "labiodental" mean?