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Everything you need to know about neurology. By Leona, Colin, Jack, Darya, and Ana Elena

Leona Das

on 17 May 2014

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Transcript of Neurology

A neuron is a nerve cell that acts as a basic building block of of the nervous system. Neurons are similar to other cells in the human body in a number of ways, but there is one key difference between neurons and other cells. Neurons are specialized to transmit information throughout the body.
The Central Nervous System
The central nervous system (CNS) is part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord, the two major structures. The brain is protected by the skull and the cranium. The spinal cord is continuous with the brain and lies connected to the brain, protected by the vertebrae.
What is Neurology?
Neurology is the study of the brain and the nervous system. The nervous system is a complex, system that regulates body activities. It has two major parts: the Central nervous system, which consists of the brain and spinal cord, and the Peripheral nervous system which includes all other neural elements, such as eyes, ears, skin, and other "sensory receptors"
Nerve Impulse
A nerve impulse is an electrical signal that travels along an axon. When the nerve is activated, there is a sudden change in the voltage across the wall of the axon, caused by the movement of ions in and out of the neuron. This triggers a wave of electrical activity that passes from the cell body along the length of the axon to the synapse.
A synapse is a small gap at the end of a neuron that allows information to pass from one neuron to the next. Synapses are found where nerve cells connects with other nerve cells as well as where nerve cells connect with muscles and glands.
The Science of the Brain
Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive movement disorder, living in one million people in the U.S.
No Causes or Cures
PD involves the malfunction and death of neurons, for some of the dying neurons produce dopamine. Dopamine is a chemical that sends messages to a part of the brain controlling movement and coordination. So, as PD progresses, the amount of dopamine produced in the brain decreases, leaving the victim unable to control their movement.
There are many symptoms in Parkinson's Disease, including:
-tremor of hands, arms, legs, jaw, face
-bradykinesia (slowness of movement and reflexes)
-postural instability
Medications and Treatments
Though there are all these medications and treatments, none of them can cure the disease yet. Some medicatons include:
-Carbidopa/ Levodopa Sinemet®
-Bromocriptine Parlodel®
Some surgical treatments inlude
-DBS where electrodes are inserted into the targeted brain region an impulse generator implaneted under the collarbone which provides an electrical impulse to the part of the brain involved in motor function
Nervous System
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is made up of the nerves going to and from the CNS. It comprises the spinal and cranial nerves that connect the CNS with the rest of the body.

Meningitis is a rare infection affecting meninges that covers the brain and spinal cord. It is mostly caused by bacterial or viral infection, beginning in a different part of the body. It is less commonly caused by a fungal infection, autoimmune disorders, or medications. There are 3 types of meningitis; viral, bacterial, and fungal.

Viral Meningitis
Viral meningitis is more common and less serious than bacterial meningitis. It is triggered by several viruses. Viral meningitis is less likely to mean permanent brain damage, after cured
most patients recover completely in 2 weeks. Mild cases of the disease mean home treatment including medicines for fever and pain and drinking a lot of fluid.
Bacterial Meningitis
Bacterial meningitis is contagious with people in close contact through coughing and sneezing. It is very serious and needs immediate care, for it can lead to death in hours or permanent damage to the brain and other body parts. It is caused by neisseria meningitidis, strptococcuspneumoniae, and haemophilus influenzae (Hib). There are vaccines, such as Hib for Hib. It develops when these types of bacteria get into the bloodstream, then traveling to the brain. Bacterial meningitis can be treated with antibiotics and dexamethasone (steriod machine).

There are many ways to get concussions, and they affect different parts of the brain. Despite the various types, concussions are are put into three generic categories: mild, moderate and severe.
Motor and Sensory Neurons
There are two main types of neurons: motor and sensory. Motor neurons are cells that carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands, while sensory neurons send signals from body parts to the central nervous system.
Concussion Treatments
There are multiple procedures for treating concussions.
1. Preventing Swelling and Further Injury: have the person stop activity and rest as well as applying ice wrapped in a washcloth.
2. Treating Symptoms: for pain, take over-the-counter Acetaminophen (Tylenol), Aspirin or Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) may make bruising worse.
3. Monitor Symptoms: if possible, stay with the person for 24 hours.
Spinal Cord
The spinal cord is the most important part of the body that connect the body and the brain. Its main purpose is to do just that, transmit important signals from the brain to the rest of the body. Its structure is composed of different segments, each of which do different things.
Spinal Cord Injuries
There are 3 main types of spinal cord injuries: cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral. These all pertain to different parts of the spinal cord and so target different parts of the body. Cervical injuries affect the neck, thoracic injuries affect the paraplegia (impairment in motor or sensory function of the lower extremities), and lumbosacral affect the legs and hips.
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