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A/P - Intro to Anatomy/Physiology

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by

Alicia Abel

on 2 December 2013

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Transcript of A/P - Intro to Anatomy/Physiology

Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
The study of the structures of the body
What is Anatomy?
What is Physiology?
The study of the functions of the body
Typically involves using dissection or imaging techniques
Typically involves using experimentation and measuring (numbers)
Levels of Structural Organization
any form of life
Organism
a group of related organs with a common function
Organ System
structures made of two or more types of tissues that perform a certain function
Organs
groups of cells that work together to perform a function
Tissues
basic units of structure and function of an organism
Cells
All chemicals are made of atoms
Chemicals
Molecules are made of two or more atoms joined together
Basic Life Processes
ability to detect and respond to change
Responsiveness
allows movement of body and structures within the body
Movement
sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body
Metabolism
increase in size
Growth
development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state
Differentiation
Production of a new individual
Reproduction
Maintaining of balance in the body
Homeostasis
Makes new structures, stores energy, releases energy
More cells created than are being destroyed
Cells getting larger
Increase in material between cells
Maintaining volume and makeup of body fluids
Maintaining pH balance
Maintaining body temperature
Anatomical Terminology
Body Positions
Regional Names
Directional Terms
Planes and Sections
Body Cavities
Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants
Standing upright, facing the observer, head level, eyes facing forward, arms at sides with hands pointing forward, feet flat on the floor and directed forward
Anatomical Position
Body is lying face up
Supine
Body is lying face down
Prone
Major Organ Systems
Protects and supports the body
Skeletal
covers and protects the body
Integumentary
Allows movement
Muscular
Respiratory
Lymphatic
Cardiovascular
Reproductive
Endocrine
Nervous
breaks down food, absorbs nutrients, eliminates wastes
Digestive
eliminates wastes, maintains balance of chemicals in the body
Urinary
regulates, interprets, and responds
regulates body activities through hormones
Transfers gasses between the environment and the blood.
Pumps and transports blood
returns proteins and fluids to blood, involved in fighting disease
used to produce offspring
1. Cephalic – head
2. Cervical – neck
3. Cranial – skull
4. Facial – face
5. Frontal – forehead
6. Orbital – eye
7. Otic – ear
8. Buccal – cheek
9. Nasal – nose
10. Oral – mouth
11. Axillary – armpit
12. Brachial – arm
13. Antecubital – front of elbow
14. Antebrachial – forearm
15. Carpal – wrist
16. Palmar – palm
17. Digital – fingers or toes
18. Femoral – thigh
19. Patellar – front of the knee
20. Pedal – foot
21. Tarsal – Ankle
22. Manual – hand
23. Inguinal – groin
24. Pubic – genital
25. Coxal – hip
26. Umbilical – navel
27. Mammary – breast
28. Sternal – breastbone
29. Occipital – base of skull
30. Acromial – shoulder
31. Vertebral – spinal column
32. Scapular – shoulder blade
33. Olecranal – back of elbow
34. Sacral – between hips
35. Gluteal – buttock
36. Popliteal – back of the knee
37. Sural – calf
38. Plantar – sole of foot
39. Calcaneal – heel
1. Superior – toward the head
2. Inferior – away from the head
3. Anterior – nearer the front of the body
4. Posterior – nearer the back of the body
5. Medial – nearer the midline
6. Lateral – farther from the midline
7. Intermediate – between two structures
8. Ipsilateral – on the same side of the body as another structure
9. Contralateral – on the opposite side of the body from another structure
10. Proximal – closer to the origin or point of attachment
11. Distal – further from the origin or point of attachment
12. Superficial – toward the surface of the body
13. Deep – away from the surface of the body
1. Dorsal body cavity includes the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity. It is surrounded by bone.
2. Ventral body cavity contains all of the organs in the abdomen and the chest.
3. Thoracic cavity is above the diaphragm and is separated from the lower parts by the diaphragm.
4. Abdomenopelvic cavity contains all the organs from the diaphragm to the rectum.
5. Abdominal cavity contains organs such as the stomach, liver, and intestines.
6. Pelvic cavity contains the reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum.
frontal
palmar
antebrachial
Full transcript