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Transcript of Literature Timeline
Native American and Explorers
The Native American and Explorers literature were preserved orally, in the form of myths and legends.
- Columbus sailed to the Americas, thinking it was India.
- Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztec Empire in Mexico.
- Spanish Missionaries attempt to convert Natives to Catholicism .
Colonial and Puritan
Age of Reason and Enlightenment
- The Uprising of New/Controversial ideas in all areas. Writing was heavily influenced by new political and social ideas. It also started to shift its focus to the inherent qualities, abilities, and rights of an individual.
-Descartes introduced his idea that the body worked like a machine
- Glorious Revolution
)- A Literary and Artistic movement that highlighted the individual. Writings began to centralize around the surreal, and the sublime ("Terrifyingly Beautiful")
- War of 1812
- Jean Jacques Rousseau believed in focusing on the individual
- William Wordsworth was born
Summary of Period
Natives believed that spirits and respected beings were present in all objects, living or non-living
The literature by natives during the Old Imperialism Period show mixed feelings about the newcomers.
On the other perspective, explorers wrote on impressions of the New World
Bay Psalm Book (1640)-
Roger Williams and Thomas Hooker
Working Providence (1654)
Magnalia Christi Americana (1702)-
Summary of Period
wrote in journals on a day-to-day basis
poetry about the new life
First time slave narratives were written and even publicized.
Imaginative literature was looked down upon in the colonies.
- 3 Newtonian Laws
Wuthering Heights -
Pride and Prejudice-
) A movement religiously and philosophically focusing on the soul, humanity, nature, and society. Writings, especially by Walt Whitman, Henry David Thoreau, and Ralph Waldo Emerson, encouraged resistance toward social, religious, and political norms.
-Thoreau refused to pay the poll tax, and as a result was jailed.
-White people in power accuse Anthony Burns of being an escaped slave. 50k people watched him, in shackles, board his slaveboat.
- An attack on Harper's Ferry, led by James brown, surrenders to the American military force.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Walden, or Life in the Woods
Henry David Thoreau
Song of myself-
) Occurred as a reaction to the Civil War, and truthfully depicted life. Writers worked to portray to the struggles of ALL classes, including the slaves.
) Germany (Kleindeutsch) unified.
) Minor Depression in America
) Hawaii annexed to U.S.
Invasions of Europeans
for land, gold, and crops.
After the foreign conquest, missionaries swooped in to convert the natives.
The natives were simplistic, yet spiritual
Refugees of the Anglican Church relocated in the New World, to "purify" their Christian Religion. Much writing was shown in diaries, and religious books.
) Growth of English Chesapeake Colonies
) Dutch Colonization in New York
) France established the colony of Saint-Domingue
Refugees of the Anglican Church relocated in the New World, to "purify" their Christian Religion.
Less religious reasons included more freedom.
Historical Context/Summary of Period
Encouraged people of this era to do something daring-- to be heroic.
Fueled explorer, painters, and musicians.
Introduction of opium injections as a source of pleasure.
In the past, artists depicted life somewhat in hopeful, optimistic society.
In realism, artists avoid happy scenarios to truthfully and realistically depict the struggles of daily life.
In order to emotionally, economically, and socially recover from the two world wars, and two depressions, people worked for a new civilization in which perfection was made a goal.
Writers now think of the future, and the past for their novels.(1984-George Orwell)
The Waste Land-
Thomas Stearns Eliot
Heart of Darkness-
The Earth: Coatlicue-
Story of Ahayuta-
The Twins of White Shell Women-
Settlers enjoyed a cleaner environment
Suffered a harsh first winter.
Relationships with natives resulted in either long disputes, or a mutually benefiting trade.
"The Enlightenment and Liberalism." The Enlightenment and Liberalism. N.p., n.d.
Web. 27 Aug. 2013.
Infoplease. Infoplease, n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2013.
PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2013.
"A Timeline of the Romantic Movement." A Timeline of the Romantic Movement. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2013.
"Transcendentalism." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 24 Aug. 2013. Web. 27 Aug. 2013.
"The Twentieth Century." The Twentieth Century. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2013.
Democracy began to spread
Empiricism birthed to combat rationalism
New scientific philosophies-> Darwin's Theory
Rebirth of Classical ideas/ philosophers
Summary of Period
Blurred the lines of reality and focused on feelings/emotions
Encouraged a new use of color, and abstract figures in art.
Literature abstained from realistic ideas or plots.
In America, known as "American Renaissance
Transcendentalism originated from New England congregationalists against 18th century rationalism
Based off of diverse sources, such as Hindu texts, and German Ideolism
The Human Comedy-
Honoré de Balzac
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn-
People wrote and expressed feelings of postwar stress, and difficulties.
Many began following a new intellectual movement called Existentialism, where one seeks their real identity, because people deny their actual existence in the world
To Kill a Mockingbird-
Letters to Felician
Stranger in the Village-
) The Modernist Movement espoused Utopian ideas, striving for perfection in a new, war-ridden, scientifically re-invented world. Writing in the area revealed intense experimentation with expressionism. It also displayed insights into psychology.
) World War I
) Interwar Years
) World War II
) The period that exists from after World War II to now. Its writing encompasses ideas from the Cold War such as communism. The Russians were in a continuous conflict of political and economic ideals with the United States of America.
) Cold War
) Civil Rights Movement
) 9/11 terrorist attacks
"ENGLISH LITERATURE." : FAMOUS WRITERS & THEIR WORK. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2013.
Fire: From Native American Myths at Americanfolklore.net." Fire: From Native American Myths at Americanfolklore.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2013.
"Native American Myths at Americanfolklore.net." Native American Myths at Americanfolklore.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2013.
"Navajo Folklore – Monster Slayer." Navajo Legends. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2013.
"Romancticism." - Literature Periods & Movements. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2013.
"Zuni Mythology." Zuni Mythology. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2013.