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Vowels and Consonants
Transcript of Vowels and Consonants
of pronunciation A brief introduction Vowels are the class of sound which makes the least obstruction to the flow of air. Vowel sounds In phonetic terms, each vowel has a number of properties that distinguish it from other vowels. Shape of the lips Tongue Position There are many types of consonant, but what all have in common is that they obstruct the flow of air
through the vocal tract Consonant sounds In phonetic terms, each consonant has a number of properties that distinguish it from other consonants Place of articulation Manner of articulation Voicing interaction action vibration Vowel description Consonants description Exercises Exercises Accentuation Intonation Assimilation Features of connected speech How to teach pronunciation There's no easy definition but we can understand it as those syllables which stand out compared to others Accentuation They are a series of phenomena that occurs mostly in informal English Features of connected speech Phonetics and Phonology workshop: Pronunciation by Oven Pérez In order to know what syllables are more likely to stand out we have to know what prominence is Prominence is composed of Pitch: rate of vibration of the vocal folds Stress: the loudness which distinguishes certain syllables or utterances Quantity: the length for each perceived phoneme or dertermined combinations Quality: the properties of each individual
sound that allows us to say what sound it is Now this 'stress' is present
in all words depending on their context there's great deal of discussion on this topic but there's agreement at least of several 'levels of stress' Main accent Secondary accent Prominent unaccented It refers to the way the voice goes up and down
in pitch when we're speaking. Intonation There's a wide arrange of theory on this matter as well and in perspective it's common ground to understand intonation you've got to know what the tone unit is. ex. John is it, you? Intonation is then expressed in tones.
and they convey different meaning, that's
they have a function. these are the tones mostly used in English -Fall
-Rise-fall Practice... It happens because of rapid speech and economy of effort (articulation) We will describe and practice the following features: Assimilation: Transformation
Gradation (Contractions): weakening It's the influence of a sound over a neighbouring sound causing to change its nature and it happens inside a word or across boundaries ex. -Can you see that boy over there?
-where do you live? Some rules for assimilation Elision It's the drop of sound, especiallyweak vowel sounds and plosive consonants ex. - He leaves next week
- Some rules for elision Linking the way most phonemes meet, usually vowels join consonants. ex. - I was on my way
- As soon as I leave... Some rules for Linking Contraction The combination of two words or syllables resulting in just one single sound and mostly reflected on written language ex. -We've been waiting for that to happen
-I've told them they should behave properly Some rules for contraction Practice