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Folk and pop culture
Transcript of Folk and pop culture
Emma Kerner Diffusion of popular Housing, Clothing and food Popular Housing Styles Rapid Diffusion of Clothing Styles Jeans Diffusion of Television Neo-Eclectic House Styles (Since 1960) Diffusion of the Internet Regional differences in good clothing and shelter persist MDCS
MDCS- The term to describe countries that have a high level of development according to some criteria
Although the differences are in the past, travel to any American city from Portland, Maine to Portland Oregon they all are wearing the same jeans eating the same chain food stores. Individual clothing habits reveal how popular culture can be distributed across the landscape with little regard for distinctive physical features
The clothing in MDC's of North America and Western Hemisphere are influenced by occupation and income
Improved communications=rapid diffusion of clothing styles around the world
Globalization of clothing styles has involved awareness by North Americans and Europeans of the variety of folk costumes around the world
Continued use of folk costumes may persist to preserve past memories or to attract tourists. Became very popular by the 70's
Mansard, late 1960's-70's
Neo-French, early 1970's-80's
Neo-Colonial, popular since 1950's, adaptation of English colonial houses Important symbol of diffusion of Western popular culture
Late 1960's- image of youthful independence after the young adopted jeans which were previously associated with manual laborers and farmers
"Genuine", made by Levi Strauss, priced at $50 to $100, are preferred
Was an obsession among the youth in the former Soviet Union, causing Communists to prevent imports
Scarce, and sold on the black market
Levi Strauss opened store in Moscow that sells jeans for around $50 or a week's wage
As access to Levi's has increased around the world, American customers have turned away from the brand Television technology was developed simultaneously in the United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union
But in the first years of broadcasting it was shown that the United States had a clear monopoly in this industry
Television diffused from the U.S. in the second half of the 20th century to Europe from MDCS to LDCS
The U.S. Public first saw television in 1930's
In 1954 the U.S. had 37 million T.V. sets
By 1970s half of the countries of Africa and Asia had little if any broadcasting
End of 20th century differences over TV ownership had diminished, but the U.S. still had a much higher level than the world as a whole Diffusion of Internet service follows the pattern established by television
40 million users worldwide in '95, 25 million in the United States
95-2000 internet usage increased in the united states from 9%-44%
Usage diffused and the U.S. share declined
Users of the internet doubled from 400 million in 2000 to 880 million in 2004
Other than the United States, relatively high rates of internet hosts were MDCs Housing built in the United States since the 1940's demonstrates popular customs vary more in time than in place
Newer housing in the United States has been built to reflect rapid changing fashion concerning the most suitable house form
Houses show the influence of shapes,materials, detailing, and other features of architectural style in vogue at any point in time
After World War 2 most United States houses were built in a modern style
Since the 1960s, styles that architects call neo-eclectic have predominated Modern House Styles
(1945-1960) Specific types of modern-style house were popular at different times
the dominant type was known as minimal traditional; small and modest houses designed for those after WWII, 1920's-30's
Ranch house, 1950's-60's,
Split level house, 1950's-70's, + garage, "family houses"
Contemporary house, 1950's- 70's
Shed style, late 1960's Popular Food Customs Alcohol and Fresh Produce Popular culture flourishes where people in a society have sufficient income to acquire tangible elements of popular culture and the leisure time to make use of them.
Consumption of large quantities of beverages and snack foods are characteristics of popular food customs.
Popular beverages and snacks are chosen based on what is produced, grown, or imported locally.
Upper South- bourbon
East Coast- rum
Southerners-pork rinds, Northerners- popcorn and potato chips Cultural backgrounds affect the amount and types of alcohol/snacks produced
Baptists(southeast) and Mormons(Utah)= low consumption rates Consumption depends on income and the amount of advertising
Variations within United States are much less significant than differences between the United States and LDCs in Africa and Asia Role of Television in Diffusing Pop Culture Television is the most popular leisure activity in MDC's
Television is the most important mechanism by which popular culture like professional sports is spread
American monopoly- Japan, Canada and Western European's diffusion of Internet was spread at a rapid pace
http://www.ted.com/talks/cynthia_schneider_the_surprising_spread_of_idol_tv.html Government Control In the past many governments viewed television as an important tool to faster cultural integration
In recent years changing technology has been a force for political change
Eastern European countries have allocated their channels to forgein broadcasts like MTV
Satellite dishes enabled viewing from other countries
Asian governments have tried to prevent satellite dishes
In China, the government banned private ownership of satellite dishes
Satellite dishes represent only one assault of government control on the flow information
.Turning away from folk culture is a move against traditional values
Lost of Traditional Values
In Iran a less developed country there is a constant controversy overs women's dress
Threat of foreign media imperialism
United States, Japan and United Kingdom dominate the television industry in LDCs
Modifying Nature, popular culture can significantly modify or control the environment
distribution of popular culture tends to produce uniform landscapes Vocab Nonmaterial culture- ideas, knowledge, and beliefs that influence people's behavior in a region
Popular culture- Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Survey Systems- pattern of land division used in an area
Traditional architecture- traditional building styles of different cultures, religions, and places
Vernacular- the native language or native dialect of a specific population
Taboo- A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom
Terroir- The contribution of a location’s distinctive physical features to the way food tastes
Habit- a repetitive act performed by a particular individual
Custom- The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act. Folk Culture- Refers to a constellation of cultural practices that form the sights, smells, sounds, and rituals of everyday existence in the traditional societies in which they developed
Folk food- food that is traditionally made by the common people of a region and forms part of their culture
Folk House- houses that reflect cultural heritage, current fashion, functional needs, and the impact of environment. The form of each house is related in part to environmental as well as social conditions.
Folk Songs- composed anonymously and transmitted orally. A song that is derived from events in daily life that are familiar to the majority of the people; songs that tell a story or convey information about daily activities such as farming, life cycle events, or mysterious events such as storms and earthquakesolklore- The traditional beliefs, myths, tales, and practices of a people, transmitted orally
Material culture- The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture Change in Traditional Role of Women . The diffusion of popular culture threatens the subservience of women to men that is prevalent in folk culture.
. Under the Taliban, women in Afghanistan were treated harshly and given little rights.
.The concept of women equality and opportunity have become accepted in MDCs, even where women continue to suffer from discriminatory practices.
. Contact with popular culture has caused an increase in prostitution for women in LDCs.
.Men from Northern Europe and Japan purchase "sex tours" when traveling to places such as Thailand, or South Korea. Threat of Foreign Media Imperialism .Leaders of some LDCs view contact with popular customs as a threat to their independence
.The United States, Japan, and the United Kingdom dominate the television industry in LDCs
.In Europe, the United States has been the source of imports of two-thirds of entertainment programs
.Leaders of LDCs believe the spread of television as a new method of economic and cultural imperialism.
.American Television presents characteristically American beliefs and social forms, such as upward social mobility, relative freedom for women, glorification of youth, and stylized violence
.To avoid offending traditional values, many satellite broadcasters in Asia do not carry MTV
.In Muslim countries, cartoons featuring Porky Pig may be banned Western Control of News Media .The diffusion of information to newspapers globally is dominated by the Associated Press (AP), and Reuters, which are owned by American and British companies.
. Most newspapers and broadcasters can not afford to gather global news so they rely on AP and Reuters.
.The news media and newspapers in most LDCs are dominated by the government who do not have the funds to establish a private news service
.African and Asian governments often criticize the Western belief of freedom of the press.
.They feel the American news organizations reflect mostly American values and do not provide a balanced view of all countries. Environmental Impact of Popular Culture .Popular Culture is less likely than folk culture to be distributed with consideration for physical features. Modifying Nature .For many popular cultures the environment is something to be modified to stimulate the economy or be used for a leisure activity. Diffusion of Golf .An increase in demand for golf courses has led to the construction of approximately 200 courses during the past two decades.
.Geographer John Rooney attributes this to increased income and leisure time of recently retired people with flexible hours.
.The number of course per person is greatest in north-central states, from Kansas to North Dakota, as well the Great Lakes region
. People in these regions have a long tradition of playing golf, and social clubs with golf courses are contribute to the growing popularity
. In contrast, access to golf courses are most limited in the South, California, and in the heavily urbanized Middle Atlantic region.
.However, South Carolina, southern Florida and central Arizona have high concentrations of golf courses due to the arrival of large numbers of golf playing northerners, either as vacationers or as permanent residents.
. Golf courses remake the environment by flattening hills, cutting grass, or digging up sand for traps and draining or expanding bodies of water to create hazards.
. Uniform Landscapes .Promoters of popular culture want a uniform appearance to generate "product recognition." Fast-Food Restaurants .A franchise agreement lets the local outlet us the company's name, symbols, trademarks, methods and architectural styles.
.Success of fast-food restaurants depends on large-scale mobility. People who travel or move to another city immediately recognize a familiar place.
.Newcomers to a particular place know what to expect in the restaurant. The establishment is familiar and comfortable to them.
.Uniformity in the appearances of gas stations, motels, and supermarkets is promoted in North America so that both foreigners and local residents recognize the purpose of the building, even if not the name of the company. Global diffusion of Uniform Landscape .American motels and fast-food chains have opened in other countries.
.These establishments appeal to North American travelers, and also customers who wish to sample American cuisine.
.Customs from anyplace on earth with faster communication and transportation, rapidly diffuse from and to anyplace on Earth.
.Japanese vehicles and electronics have diffused in recent years to the rest of the world, including North America.
.Styling has become more uniform because of consumer preference for Japanese vehicles.
.Automakers such as General Motors, Ford, Toyota, and Honda now manufacture similar models in North and South American, Europe, and Asia, instead of separately designed models for each continent. Negative Environmental Impact . Diffusion of popular culture can cause a depletion of scarce natural resources and pollution of the landscape Increased Demand for Natural Resources .Diffusion of popular customs increases demand for raw materials, such as minerals and other substances found beneath the Earth's surface
.Depletion or even extinction of animals can result from diffusion of popular culture.
Example: Some animal skin is used to make fashionable coats.
.Folk customs may also involve animal skin but the demand is far less than that of popular culture.
.Increased demand for some products may strain the capacity of the environment.
Example: The increase in meat consumption causes an increase in the amount of cattle raised. Pollution .Popular culture can pollute the environment.
.The environment can assimilate to some waste from human activity but popular culture generate a high volume of waste: solids, liquids, gases.
. A wide-spread belief exists that indigenous peoples of the Western Hemisphere practiced more "natural" agriculture.
.However, before Columbus, folk customs included burning grasslands for planting and hunting, cutting extensive forests, and over hunting species.
.The more developed societies that produce endless supplies for popular customs have created the technological capacity both to create large-scale environmental damage and to control it.
. Enormous amounts of money and time are needed to control the damage. Threat of folk culture The creators