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The Legacy of Hatshepsut

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Unaib Jamil

on 26 March 2014

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Transcript of The Legacy of Hatshepsut

King Hatshepsut
The Legacy Of
Unaib Jamil & Kyle Desilva
Trading Establishments
Hatshepsut began an expidition by sea to Punt, a cost of Africa, where Egypt was introduced to baboons, animal skins, gold, ebony, aromatic trees, spices, and more for the first time.

She was sent gifts from Asia, Lybia, and Nubia, along with new plants, expanding greatly the knowledge of the Egyptions.

These journies were well-documented in heiroglyphics and images in her tomb. Some of these images were humorous images of the Puntites and their queen. The Puntite queen is pictured with folds of fat hanging over her knees and elbows, her back is crooked, and she has an aquiline nose.
18th Dynasty Pharoah
Building Projects
Rising to Power


When her father died, her half-brother and husband, Tuthmose II, ascended the throne. Markings on his mummy show us he had a skin disease, so his reign lasted only three or four years. Documents from the time state that Hatshepsut "ruled from behind the scenes" during this time.
Keeping Her Power
Tuthmose III hated Hatshepsut, and tried to outdo her after she died. He did this by erasing her name from all of her statues and replacing it with his, and building a larger memorial that would shadow over hers. He also destroyed much of her mortuary temple, destroyed her tomb, and stole her mummy. He also destroyed Senmut's sarcophagus and erased his name from things. He might have even murdered Hatshepsut, Senmut, and Nefrura, but, aside from what we know of Tutmose's anger, there is little evidence to support this theory.
Hatshepsut ruled for about twenty years, until her death in 1458 BC. We know this because of documents from that time, the dates on her statues, and inscriptions in her temple. Egyptian documents describe Hatshepsut as a favorite daughter of a popular pharaoh, and a charismatic and beautiful lady in her own right. However, because she was a female, the threat of revolt was much higher, especially as Tuthmose III grew to a proper ruling age.

To cease the fears of her people, she dressed in male garb during her reign. She even wore the traditional fake beard. We know this because all the statues of the time depict her in men's clothing, sometimes even as a man.
She also used propaganda to keep the trust of her people. Inside her temple, there are writings claiming two specific things. First, she emphasized how much her father loved her, and how she was his favorite. She also claimed her father was the god Amon-Re in disguise. Because he had been a popular Pharaoh, and because all Pharaohs were considered gods, the public found this story very believeable.

Because there were no wars during her reign, Hatshepsut had to prove her superiority in other ways. She did this by way of a major trade expedition and building the most building projects of any Pharaoh.
Hatshepsut left behind more buildings and monuments than any other Pharaoh. She commissioned hundreds of statues, but her most impressive building was mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri in the Valley of the Kings.
Senmut, Hatshepsut's lover, advisor, and architect, helped her design it. Construction took 15 years,
between the 7th and the 22nd years of her reign. We know this because of the inscriptions inside the temple.
The temple included a tree lined avenue of sphinxes that led up to the temple, ramps connecting the terraces, the Hathor chapel, the Anubis chapel, a sanctuary, an altar, a Punt colonnade, a Birth colonnade, an Upper Court, a Middle Court, and a Lower Court. A lot of our information about her reign comes from this temple.
Tuthmose III
Hatshepsut and Tuthmose II never had any children together, although each had children with other people. Hatshepsut's daughter Nefrure was mostly likely the prodigee of her advisor Senmut, and Tuthmose II sired a son with the commoner Isis. His name was Tuthmose III (of course).
Thuthmose III did have reason to hate Hatshepsut. Firstly, she was not his mother. Secondly, she stole the throne from him. He was supposed to become Pharaoh upon the death of his father, after all.
Hatshepsut's father was the Pharaoh Tuthmose I, and her mother was the queen Aahmes. Hatshepsut was the favorite of three children.
This son, Tuthmose III, was in line for the throne, but due to his age Hatshepsut was able to jump to the throne as queen dowager. She made the most of this opportunity, and became the Pharaoh.
Conclusion
Hatshepsut was a remarkable woman, and a very successful Pharaoh. However, she seems very manipulative, so the evidence about Tuthmose stripping her statues of her name and replacing it with his own seems absolutely reasonable. Her propaganda was brilliant, so we do believe the fact that the Egyptian people really did like her and supported her many building projects and the trade missions.

This legacy is important because of Hatshepsut's ideas about society at the time and how she manipulated them for her own ends. For example, she knew that her people already knew her as a god on earth, so they would believe that her father was a major god, and they would trust her more for that. We think she should be remembered mostly for her cleverness and being one of the first known users of propaganda. Propaganda, not so different from hers, in still prevalent in our society today.
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