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Nuclear Power

power plant, operating principle and energy scenario

Emmanuel Vijay

on 21 March 2013

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Transcript of Nuclear Power

Nuclear Power Group# : 3 Overview > Principle of Operation
Need for Nuclear power
Parts of a Plant
Types of Generation
General Statistics
Advantages & Challenges Nuclear (Atomic) Power Plant A nuclear power plant works in a similar way as a thermal power plant. The difference between the two is in the fuel they use to heat the water in the boiler(steam generator).

In a nuclear power station, energy released by nuclear fission is used to generate electricity with Rankine Cycle.

1 kg of Uranium U235 can produce as much energy as the burning of 4500 tones of high grade variety of coal or 2000 tones of oil. Need for NP The Rate of CO2 emissions (Direct or Indirect) is far less than any other primary energy generation. The Phaseout of fossil fuel based energy sources like coal and petroleum High capital investment and extremely diluted nature of renewable energy resources to concentrate energy. It is more cleaner in the sense that only a small quantity of nuclear fuel can produce the same energy produced by tones of coal or petroleum. Power plant layout Nuclear Reactor Schematic Core Moderator Coolant Fuel Control Rods Here the nuclear fission process takes place. This reduces the speed of fast moving neutrons. Most moderators are graphite, water or heavy water. They carry the intense heat generated. Water is used as a coolant some reactors use liquid sodium as a coolant. The fuel used for nuclear fission is U235 isotope. Radiation Shield To protect the people working from radiation and radiation fragments. Control rods limit the number of fuel atoms that can split. They are made of boron or cadmium which absorbs neutrons. Parts of the Reactor Working of a NPP [Video] Types of Power Plants Pressurized Water Reactor plant
Boiling Water Reactor Plant Others include Heavy Water reactor plant
Gas Cooled reactor plant
Fast Breeder reactor plant Advantages Amount of fuel required is small. So no problem of transportation , storage etc. Need Less Area compared to other power generation for Located near load centers. So primary distribution cost can be minimized. Very economical in large capacity. Ensures continuous supply of energy. Does not produce harmful
gases or chemicals Challenges Initial capital cost is very high as compared to other plants. Erection and commissioning of the plant requires greater technical knowledge. The fuel used is expensive. Disposal of radio active products are difficult. Causes Radioactive Pollution Pressurized Water Reactor plant In a PWR, the primary coolant (water) is pumped under high pressure to the reactor core where it is heated by the energy generated by the fission of atoms. The heated water then flows to a steam generator where it transfers its thermal energy to a secondary system where steam is generated and flows to turbines which, in turn, spin an electric generator. Boiling Water Reactor Plant > A boiling water reactor is cooled and moderated by water at a lower pressure.

> It allows the water to boil inside the pressure vessel producing the steam that runs the turbines.

> The thermal efficiency can be higher, and they can be simpler, and potentially more stable and safe. Heavy Water Reactor Plant same amount of power. A pressurized heavy water reactor is a nuclear power reactor, commonly using unenriched natural uranium as its fuel, that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and moderator. The heavy water coolant is kept under pressure, allowing it to be heated to higher temperatures without boiling, much as in a PWR. Gas Cooled Water Reactor A gas cooled reactor is a nuclear reactor that uses graphite as a neutron moderator and carbon dioxide (helium can also be used) as coolant.
The fuel is uranium oxide pellets, enriched to 2.5-3.5%, in stainless steel tubes
The carbon dioxide circulates through the core, reaching 650°C and then passes through the steam generator tubes. Fast Breeder Reactor A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor capable of generating more fissile material than it consumes because its neutron economy is high enough to breed fissile fuel from fertile material like uranium-238 or thorium-232.  World Energy 15% is Nuclear CO 2 $ Thermal Power 40% Cons: Pollution, Global warming Hydroelectric Power efficiency Cons: Deforestation, Ecological problems, Climate dependance Renewable Resources Cons: Non-continuous, Unsuitable for large scale, Harmonics up to 40% efficiency Economic Continuous Independent Reliable Fast-Growing Nuclear Energy Statistics 15% of the total power generated in the whole world is atomic energy. In India Total Installed Capacity 4780 MW Tarapur Kalpakam Kaiga Naraora Ratbatha Kakrapar Kundankulam Concluding... The world needs more energy, and there is one clean, efficient, and safe way to get it: nuclear power.
As the global appetite for electricity grows, atomic power which scarcely pollutes, generates relatively little solid waste, and is far more efficient than the alternatives should be embraced. A worldwide effort to develop and share nuclear technology is in all our interests. Thankyou Team Members: Abin Mathew Alphonsa Maria Thomas Bessy Sara Benny Devika A. S Emmanuel Vijay Lawrence Jayaram P Sujith M Shaji Jithin George Martin Thankachan Kiran Thomas Aravind R Vinu Joseph Tyson Yambem Rajkamal Rajan 1500 Power Generation
Equivalent C02 Emissions Fossil fuel based Nuclear Power + Energy Summary Principle of operation, Need for nuclear power, Layout of power plant, Working, Types, Advantages and Challenges, Energy scenario and statistics (global and national) Rankine Cycle
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