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Evolution

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Colleen Snyder

on 18 June 2013

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Transcript of Evolution

Evolution
Ernst Mayr
Evidence for evolution
Natural Selection
The evolutionary tree
Microevoluton in a population
Origin of life
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
Colleen Snyder
Charles Darwin
Established by
Naturalist
who was a
Galapagos
He went to
Finches
He observed
Turtles
Beaks
Variation in the shapes of
Variation in the shapes of
Shells
Linnaeus
Influenced by
who was
Founder of taxonomy
which is
The science of classifying organisms
Cuvier
who was
Founder of paleontology
which is
The study of fossils
Influenced by
Lamarck
First to state
which means
for example
Influenced by
Malthus
published
which is
Essay about population growth
It states
There are limits to
a size of a population
Influenced by
Hutton
who
"Essay on the Principle
of Population"
Introduced gradualism
which states that
The earth was moulded by slow and gradual events rather than sudden, violent events
This is based off
Hutton's ideas that the earth
is very old and that change is normal
supported by
such as
such as
such as
Anatomical evidence
Fossil evidence
Molecular evidence
for example
for example
Vestigal structures
Homologus structures
like the
Human tailbone
like the
forelimbs of humans, cats, whales and bats
for example
Whale bones
DNA
for example
for example
Analogous Structures
like the
wings of bats, birds and insects
such as
Biogeography
like the
Species on remote
islands that are closely related
such as
Embryological development
like the
Embryonic development of all vertebrates
Inheritance of acquired charactertistics
Organisms adjust to their environment during their lifetime and pass adaptations off to offspring
A body builders child would be buff
stated
Use and disuse
which means
Parts of the body that are used
often become big and strong
Parts we don't use disappear
like the giraffe neck
observed Darwin's theory
Created statements
Such as
For any species population increases exponentially
Populations tend to be stable in size
except for
Seasonal fluctuations
Resources are limited
Characteristics of
members
in a population vary
Variation is heritable
variation impacts
Survival
inability to survive changes
Genes
in population
Survival of the fittest
which is
fitness is
The ability to reproduce
Can impact
which shows
% of evolution in a population
from these statements he
Made inferences
such as
If there are more individuals than an environment can support
there will be a
Struggle for existance
The unequal ability to survive and reproduce
leads to
Gradual change
in population
survival depends on inherited traits
which is
requires
variation
Inheritance
Differential adaptedness
Differential reproduction
Types of selection
there are different
for example
Directional
selection
Stabilizing
selection
Disruptive selection
occurs when
The extreme
phenotype is
favored
occurs when
The extreme phenotypes are eliminated and the intermediate phenotype is favored
occurs when
Extreme phenotypes are favored
start by looking at
Gene pool
which is
All alleles in
a population
find your
Allele frequencies
using
p+q=1
p2+2pq+q2=1
Find alleles from
another generation
then
Compare
and then
if your alleles are
100 %Fixed
there was no change meaning
There was
no evolution
there are
Five conditions
for no evolution
which are
Large popuation
No gene flow
No mutations
Random mating
No natural selection
Variation
is made possible by
created with the help of
Mutations
which
Introduce new genes and alleles to a population
can be
Beneficial
cause of
Neutral
Harmful
When humans
select variation they find useful
Artificial selection
Polymorphism
Genetic
Phenotypic
for example
Height
for example
can be
Point mutations
for example most
sometimes
they are
which is
Changes confined to a single gene pool
Macroevolution
refers to
Evolutionary change above the species level
can be represented by a
Cladogram
Phylogenetic tree
also refers to
How species arose
a term for this is
Speciation
this refers to
The splitting into two or more species
this relates to
Biological species concept
developped by
states
Members of one species interbreed and have a shared gene pool
and
Each species is reproductively isolated from other species
also states
There is only gene flow between population of one species
this is because of
Reproductive isolating mechanisms
these can be
Prezygotic
Postzygotic
such as
Habitat isolation
occurs when
two species inhabit different habitats
for example
Two species of the garter snake in the genus Thamnophis
Temporal isolation
occurs when
Species breed during different times
for example
The eastern spotted skunk and the western spotted skunk
Behavioral isolation
occurs when
There are differences in mating behaviors between species
for example
Blue-footed boobies
Mechanical isolation
occurs when
Morphological differences prevent mating
for example
A great dane and a chihuahua
Gametic Isolation
occurs when
The gametes are incompatible
for example
Two species of monkey flower
such as
Reduced Hybrid viability
occurs when
Hybrids do not live to reproduce
for example
Sea urchins
Reduced Hybrid fertility
occurs when
The hybrid offspring is sterile
for example
A mule
Hybrid breakdown
occurs when
The offspring created by the hybrids are sterile
for example
Offspring of hybrid cultivated rice
there are different
Modes of speciation
they are
Allopactric Speciation
Sympatric speciation
results from
Population being separated by geographical barrier
results from
Members of a population develop a genetic difference
relates to
Adaptive radiation
which is
Development from a single ancestral species of many new species
for example
Darwin's finches
is directly linked to
started with
Early Earth
during that time
Earth produced simple cells
for visual representation
Imagine origin of life like a 12 hour clock
to gather data
Radiometric dating
that data was used to create
Geologic record
this divides
Earth's history
into eras
Archean
Proterozoic
Phanerozoic
during which there are
Mass Extinctions
two well known extinctions are
Permian Extinction
Cretaceous Extinction
claimed
96% or marine species & 8/27 insect orders
claimed
Many species including the dinosaurs
another cause is
Genetic Drift
occurs when
Bottleneck effect
Founder effect
caused by
severe reduction in population size
happens when
A population is isolated from the general population
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