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Introduction to Geography
Transcript of Introduction to Geography
The scientific and systematic study of both the physical and cultural features of the earth’s surface.
A spatial perspective looking at patterns and distributions on the earth’s surface.
The study of where things are found on Earth’s surface and the reasons for the locations.
The word geography was invented by the Greek scholar Eratosthenes. It is based on 2 Greek words:
-Geo – “Earth”
-graphy – “to write”
Comparing Physical & Human Geography
Studies in Physical Geography
Geomorphology: studies the form and structure of the surface of the earth
Climatology: involves the study of long term weather conditions on the earth
Hydrography: concerns the distribution of water (oceans, rivers, lakes, and their uses)
Biogeography: studies the flora (plant life) and the fauna (animal life)
Pedology: study of the soils
Ecology: studies the interactions between life forms
and the environment
Geology: study of rocks and the earth’s interior
As a geographer you need to ask questions:
Where are things located?
Why are they important?
How are places related?
How are places connected?
How are humans affected by these locations?
Physical Geography is the study of the 4 spheres:
Human Geography is the study
of the spatial differentiation
and organization of human activity
on the earth’s surface.
Where people live and why
Health issues involving population
Industry & manufacturing
What will we be studying in Human Geography?
(And its connections...)
Urban social science
Comparing Geographers & Historians
Geographers: Identify the LOCATION of important places and explain why human activities are LOCATED beside one another.
Historians: Identify the DATES of important events and explain why human activities
follow one another CHRONOLOGICALLY
Geographers ask WHERE and WHY
Historians ask WHEN and WHY
Geographers recognize that an action at one point on Earth can result from something happening at another point, which can consequently affect conditions elsewhere.
Historians recognize that an action at one point in time can result from past actions
that can in turn affect future ones.