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Hydrogen Fuel Cells
Transcript of Hydrogen Fuel Cells
The e- flow out of the cell electrical energy.
H+ membrane cathode.
H+ combine with O and the e- water.
The reaction never run out. Cathode Reaction: O2 + 4H+ + 4e- 2H2O
Overall Cell Reaction: 2H2 + O2 2H2O
Anode Reaction: 2H2 4H+ + 4e- How does HFC work ? So Why Fuel Cells ? Types of Hydrogen fuel cells In general all fuel cells have the same basic configuration - an electrolyte and two electrodes The first hydrogen fuel cell was found in 1839 Presented by :
Mouza Al Tunaiji To : Prof. Deborah Getar * History of Hydrogen fuel cells
* How does it work
* Types of Hydrogen fuel cells
* Applications of HFC
* Advantages and Disadvantages of HFC
* Future of HFC 1839 1932 1960 1997 History line of HFC Francis Bacon starts his research about Fuel cells NASA starts using the fuel-cell-based electrical power system The first bus powered by a fuel cell The physicist William Grove developed the first fuel cell nowadays Hydrogen fuel cells are well developed and have variety of applications and uses anode cathode electrolyte Different types of fuel cells are classified by the kind of electrolyte used The type of electrolyte used determines the kind of chemical reactions that take place and the temperature range of operation similar to a battery
- membrane ( electrolyte)
- repeated units
O and H are supplied to the cell 2 2 2 2 Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Membrane type: polymer
Electrolyte: sulfuric acid
Operation temperature: low (80°C)
Efficiency: 60% transportation
35% stationary • Solid electrolyte ( less corrosion )
• Low temperature
• Quick start-up Advantages Disadvantages • Expensive catalysts
• Sensitive to fuel impurities
• Low temperature waste heat Alkaline (AFC) Disadvantages Sensitive to CO2 and air
Electrolyte management Electrolyte : potassium hydroxide
Operation temperature : 90-100°C
Effeciency : 60% Advantages Cathode reaction faster
Low cost components Phosphoric Acid(PAFC) Electrolyte: phosphoric acid
operation temperature: 150-200°C
Efficiency: 40% Advantages Disadvantages • Higher temperature enables CHP ( heat and electricity generation )
• Increased tolerance to fuel impurities
( uses impure hydrogen ) • Long start up time
• Low current and power Molten Carbonate(MCFC) Electrolyte: lithium,sodium or potassium carbonates.
Operation temperature: 600-700°C
Effeciency: 45-50% Advantages • High efficiency
• Fuel flexibility
• Can use a variety of catalysts
• Suitable for CHP ( heat and electricity generation ) Disadvantages High temperature corrosion and breakdown of cell components
Long start up time
Low power density Solid Oxide(SOFC) Electrolyte: hard, non-porous ceramic compound
Operation temperature: 700-1000°C
Effeciency: 60% Advantages • High efficiency
• Fuel flexibility
• Can use a variety of catalysts
• Solid electrolyte
• Suitable for CHP & CHHP
• Hybrid/GT cycle Disadvantages • High temperature corrosion and breakdown of cell components
• Long start up time Physical Security
Wide Applications Hydrogen Fuel Cell produce zero pollution The only byproducts of these Fuel Cell vehicles are water and heat Why don't we use HFC ? Very Costly Why ? The biggest challenge regarding HFC is the hydrogen production and storage costs Thermal Processes
Photolytic Processes General process for Hydrogen production Developing safe, reliable, compact and cost-effective hydrogen storage is one of the biggest challenges to widespread use of fuel cell technology Why ? Hydrogen has physical characteristics that make it difficult to store large quantities without taking up a great deal of space Applications of Hydrogen Fuel Cells Transportation Automobiles
Space Shuttles Power Stations HFC can supply 1.5 kilowatts of continuous electrical power and drinking water for the astronauts. Fuel cell systems have been installed all over the world in :
Utility power plants Micro Power Telecommunication Electronics could gain drastically longer battery power with Fuel Cell technology:
Cell phones can be powered for 30 days without recharging
Laptops can be powered for 20 hours without recharging
Fuel Cells have been proven to be 99.999% reliable power source for Internet and sophisticated communication networks In The Futures References Thank Y u for listening! Hydrogen might be the fuel of the future and hydrogen fuel cells could replace petroluem feul and all batteries 1. http://auto.howstuffworks.com fuel-efficiency/alternative-fuels/fuel-cell4.htm
6. http://inventors.about.com/od/fstartinventions/a/Fuel_Cells.htm 85 % efficient
Decrease in fuel consumption