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Transcript of Experiential Learning
Today's Agenda Introduction Activity
Defining Experiential Learning
Kolb's Learning Theory
Applying the Theory
Discussion and Q&A Amal Ahmed Diverging (feeling and watching - CE/RO)
These people are able to look at things from different perspectives. They are sensitive. They prefer to watch rather than do, tending to gather information and use imagination to solve problems. They are best at viewing concrete situations several different viewpoints. Kolb called this style 'Diverging' because these people perform better in situations that require ideas-generation, for example, brainstorming. People with a Diverging learning style have broad cultural interests and like to gather information. They are interested in people, tend to be imaginative and emotional, and tend to be strong in the arts. People with the Diverging style prefer to work in groups, to listen with an open mind and to receive personal feedback. The process of learning and constructing knowledge, skills, and attitude through making sense and meaning of experiences.
The focus of learning is on the process and not of the outcome.
Holistic approach to learning Defining Experiential Learning Direct embodied experience that engages mentally, physically and emotionally
Simulated experience or reliving past experiences
Making sense of experiences through collaboration in a community
Introspective experiences (ex: meditation, dreaming) Various Dimensions of Experiential Learning
Constructivist (learning and new knowledge is constructed by reflecting on concrete experiences)
Situative (learning and knowing is intertwined with our actions)
Psychoanalytical (learning produced by resolving our unconscious conflicts)
Critical Cultural (learning produced by questioning and opposing the dominant social norms of experiences)
Complexity (learning produced by the environmental relationships that bind experiences together) Different Theoretical Perspectives Dewey
Piaget Some Experiential Theorists References Merriam, S.B., Caffarella, R.S., & Baumgartner, L.M. (2007). Learning in adulthood: a comprehensive guide. 3rd Ed. San Fransico, California: Jossey-Bass. For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them
Kolb Kolb's learning theory sets out four distinct learning styles, which are based on a four-stage learning cycle. Kolb's model offers both a way to understand individual learning styles, which he named the "Learning Styles Inventory" (LSI), and also an explanation of a cycle of "experiential learning" that applies to all learners. Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory Kolb’s four-stage learning cycle shows how experience is translated through reflection into concepts, which in turn are used as guides for active experimentation and the choice of new experiences. Four-Stage Learning Cycle Stage one: Concrete experience (feeling): Learning from specific experiences and relating to people. Sensitive to other's feelings. Stage two: Reflective observation (watching): Observing before making a judgement by viewing the environment from different perspectives. Looks for the meaning of things. Stage three: Abstract conceptualization (thinking): Logical analysis of ideas and acting on intellectual understanding of a situation. Stage four: Active experimentation (doing): Ability to get things done by influencing people and events through action. Includes risk-taking. Depending upon the situation or environment, the learners may enter the learning cycle at any point and will best learn the new task if they practice all four modes. Learning to ride a bicycle:
Thinking about riding and watching another person ride a bike.
Understanding the theory and having a clear grasp of the biking concept.
Receiving practical tips and techniques from a biking expert.
Leaping on the bike and have a go at it. Learning Cycle Example Summary Reflection Applying Kolb's Theory Kolb, David A. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Tell me, and I will forget.
Show me, and I may remember.
Involve me, and I will understand.
- Confucius Built upon earlier works by Dewey, Levin, and Piaget
“Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience” (1984, p. 38).
Proposed that experiential learning has 6 main features David A Kolb Learning is best conceived as a process, not in terms of outcomes
Learning is a continuous process grounded in experience
Learning requires the resolution of conflicts between dialectically opposed modes of adaptation to the world (learning is by its very nature full of tension)
Learning is a holistic process of adaptation to the world
Learning involves transactions between the person and the environment
Learning is the process of creating knowledge that is the result of the transaction between social knowledge and personal knowledge. What is Experiential Learning?
How does Kolb's theory apply?
How am I supposed to use it? Business Balls, Initials. Kolb learning styles. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/kolblearningstyles.htm (2010, February 5). Being aware of your own learning style and your students’ preferential learning styles
Implement a variety of teaching techniques and a variety of learning strategies
Cater learning experiences to each of the 4 learning styles (ex: brainstorming activities that allow solving problems from various perspectives; lectures and readings; practical, hands-on activities, group/team assignments )
Provide opportunities for students to get accustom to different learning styles than their preferred (allows students to become flexible learners) Facilitators: Encourage learners to discuss, and reflect on experiences. Encourages learners to evaluate their concrete experiences. Encouraging learners to take risks.
Catalyst: Provide learners with opportunity to engage in learning activities, such as problem-solving or hands-on tasks. Engaging learners in dialogues which encourage critical thinking, reflection, sense-making, and exploring various perspectives.
Motivators: Provide students with encouragement towards all learning situations and inspire learners to understand their learning style and how to make the best use of it. Roles Assessment Reflection: Learners look back upon their learning progress to contemplate what they have done well, what they could improve upon, and where they will go next.
Self-assessment: Learners assess their own progress and learning process to determine if they have met all expectations and are satisfied with their work.
Journaling: the use of a journal to consistently record thoughts, ideas, and progress helps to maintain focus throughout the learning situation, as well as a provide a location to record important notes for future use. Activity Activity Monkey
Learning Style: Accommodating
You grasp experience by doing rather than watching.
You transform the experience through feeling (concrete experience) rather than thinking (abstract conceptualization). Jaguar
Learning Style: Converging
You grasp experience by doing rather than watching.
You transform the experience through thinking (abstract conceptualization) rather than feeling (concrete experience). Owl
Learning Style: Diverging
You grasp experience by watching rather than doing.
You transform the experience through feeling (concrete experience) rather than thinking (abstract conceptualization). Fox
Learning Style: Assimilating
You grasp experience by watching rather than doing.
You transform the experience through thinking (abstract conceptualization) rather than feeling (concrete experience). Assimilating (watching and thinking - AC/RO)
The Assimilating learning preference is for a concise, logical approach. Ideas and concepts are more important than people. These people require good clear explanation rather than practical opportunity. They excel at understanding wide-ranging information and organising it a clear logical format. People with an Assimilating learning style are less focused on people and more interested in ideas and abstract concepts. People with this style are more attracted to logically sound theories than approaches based on practical value. These learning style people is important for effectiveness in information and science careers. In formal learning situations, people with this style prefer readings, lectures, exploring analytical models, and having time to think things through. Converging (doing and thinking - AC/AE)
People with a Converging learning style can solve problems and will use their learning to find solutions to practical issues. They prefer technical tasks, and are less concerned with people and interpersonal aspects. People with a Converging learning style are best at finding practical uses for ideas and theories. They can solve problems and make decisions by finding solutions to questions and problems. People with a Converging learning style are more attracted to technical tasks and problems than social or interpersonal issues. A Converging learning style enables specialist and technology abilities. People with a Converging style like to experiment with new ideas, to simulate, and to work with practical applications. Accommodating (doing and feeling - CE/AE)
The Accommodating learning style is 'hands-on', and relies on intuition rather than logic. These people use other people's analysis, and prefer to take a practical, experiential approach. They are attracted to new challenges and experiences, and to carrying out plans. They commonly act on 'gut' instinct rather than logical analysis. People with an Accommodating learning style will tend to rely on others for information than carry out their own analysis. This learning style is prevalent and useful in roles requiring action and initiative. People with an Accommodating learning style prefer to work in teams to complete tasks. They set targets and actively work in the field trying different ways to achieve an objective. How have your roles (parent, wife, teacher, empoyee, brother, etc.) in life help shape the way you learn?
Reflect on a specific experience that has helped you gain further understanding/knowledge, or helped in understanding an unfamiliar topic. Associate this experience with one of Kolb's 4 Stages of learning.
At which stage do you typically enter the learning cycle? Do you always enter at the same stage, and why?
Has there been any one experience in your life that has signifcantly altered the way you learn? If so, then how and why?
With a partner, discuss your journal entries Q&A Personal Interpretations Refer to Kolb's four stage learning cycle:
Stage one: Concrete experience (feeling): Learning from specific experiences and relating to people. Sensitive to other's feelings.
Stage two: Reflective observation (watching): Observing before making a judgement by viewing the environment from different perspectives. Looks for the meaning of things.
Stage three: Abstract conceptualization (thinking): Logical analysis of ideas and acting on intellectual understanding of a situation.
Stage four: Active experimentation (doing): Ability to get things done by influencing people and events through action. Includes risk-taking.