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Research skills

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Maria Hadjipavlou

on 22 November 2016

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Transcript of Research skills

Effective
note-taking
Writing References
General Research Skills

Referencing
The references section lists the publications that the authors cited in the article.
Effective note-taking
There is no one 'best method'
but
there are useful tips / methods for effective note-taking
Plagiarism
Plagiarism is using the work of others without acknowledging your source of information or inspiration
Conclusions



Note down all the details you will need to reference each source in full (including page numbers)
Generic Research Skills
Activity 1:
Why take notes?
Work in groups or pairs
Take 5 minutes
Brainstorm
Activity 2:
Listen & take notes
Watch the video (duration: 5:21')
Take notes on the topic:
'Effective note-taking'
Activity 3:
Making Outline
Open a Word processor
Make an outline based on your notes
What is plagiarism?

'
using words more or less exactly as they have been used in articles, lectures,
[...]
books,
[...]
using other people's ideas or theories without saying whose ideas they are
paraphrasing what you read or hear without stating where it comes from.
'
Using quotations
copy words and punctuation
exactly
put
'
quotation marks
'
around the words you quote
use three dots
[...]
to indicate omitted words
say the
author's name/ year of publibation/ page(s)
of where the quotation comes from
Activity 1:
Detecting plagiarism
Work in groups or pairs
Take 5'
Read the 6 given pieces of text
Discuss whether the text is an example of
plagiarism
, and why?
5 Reasons
Out of courtesy to the person whose idea or words have been used or referred to
Avoid
plagiarism
Readers can find the original source
Writers can check something later
Shows thorough research of a topic
APA style
American Psychological Association
(APA)
style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences
Reading comprehension
1. Start with something general
2. Monitor your comprehension
3. Guide your reading
4. Re-read difficult passages.
5. Highlight keywords and phrases.
6. Color-code information
7. Ask ‘depth questions'
8. Apply the C.R.E.A.M Learning Strategies
Finding information in the library
challenges
reasons
for note - taking
Video Source
: https://intranet.birmingham.ac.uk/as/studentservices/disability/learning-support/effective-learning/skills/note-taking.aspx
Goals
Develop General Research Skills
Avoiding
Plagiarism
Note-taking techniques
Example
Example of mind-map technique
Source: http://education.exeter.ac.uk/dll/studyskills/note_taking_appendix_b.htm
Cottrell, S., 2008, p.128
Cottrell, S., 2008, p.128
Paraphrasing
Restate the meaning of a text or passage in 'your own words'.

Again, say the
author's name/ year of publication

Examples of successful and unsuccessful paraphrases:
Yes, this is a quotation! How did you guess that?
Improving reading comprehension
http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/QPA_paraphrase.html
Activities
https://ilrb.cf.ac.uk/citingreferences/apatutorial/useapa3.html

https://ilrb.cf.ac.uk/citingreferences/apaactiv2/activ2c.html
PARTS OF A JOURNAL ARTICLE
How many sections are there in a journal article?

Title, author, and contact information
Abstract
Introduction
Literature review
Methods or methodology
Results
Discussion
Conclusion and summary
References or sources

Cottrell, S. (2011), p.119
Typically, research articles begin with a
title
. Next, the authors are identified along with their
affiliation
(i.e., who they work for, such as a university or agency). Usually, one author - who can be
contacted
for further information or permission to use the article - is listed at the bottom of the first page of the research article. 
Abstract
: This is a
summary
of the research article. It provides an overview of the research, which is useful to determine if the article is relevant to the reader’s work. Abstracts typically follow a standard format. The authors briefly state
why
the research is important, the
methodology
used, the
results
, and a
concluding
statement based on the
findings
.

Introduction
: In this section, the authors describe the
rationale
for the study, what the
context,
what are the
novel aspects
the article by outlining what research has already been done in this area. In general, this is also the section where the authors’
research question
is introduced, and hypotheses or anticipated results are stated.
The
literature review
provides the reader
with a
critical discussion
of other research related to the topic, through
summary
, classification, and
comparison
of prior research studies. It also addresses questions that remain unanswered or require additional research (Dunifon, 2005).
Methods or methodology:
  In this section, the authors outline how the research was conducted. Key elements that the authors describe in this section include:
Participants
in the study including the sample size and a description of those participants (e.g., age, gender, education level). How participants were selected for the study (e.g., random sample, convenience sample, census) . What was measured and how was it measured (research
methods
). An explanation of how the
data was analyzed.

Results
: The authors present the research
findings

in this section, the
statistical or descriptive

analysis
that the authors conduct. The results are often displayed using
tables
, charts,
diagrams
or figures,
written explanations


Conclusion and summary:
In this section, the authors
summarize
what they found and link it back to the current literature in the area. Often, any
limitations
of the study are described in this section. For example, if the researchers used a convenience sample to recruit participants, the results may not apply to people that are different in some way from the study participants. The authors may also suggest
directions
for future research in this section.

Discussion
: In this section, the authors
interpret
the results. The authors may provide possible explanations for what they found, including an interpretation of unexpected results.
 
References or sources:
The references section
lists the
publications
that the authors cited in the article. The references may help the reader judge the quality of the article and can be used to learn more about the topic area.
There are different
styles of referencing
(e.g. APA style, Harvard style)

http://www.knowmo.ca/capacity/ReadingUnderstanding/researcharticle.aspx

What is
doi
?
http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/what-is-doi.aspx

Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283.
doi:10.1108/03090560710821161
Let's go for a library orientation visit!!!!!
https://ilrb.cf.ac.uk/citingreferences/apatutorial/whycite.html
Full transcript