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Copy of Copy of Copy of Expectancy Theory by Victor Vroom

Presentation for Human Resources Class
by

farah amira

on 24 March 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Copy of Expectancy Theory by Victor Vroom

Vroom's primary research was on the expectancy theory of motivation, which attempts to explain why individuals choose to follow certain courses of action in organizations, particularly in decision-making and leadership. His most well-known books are Work and Motivation, Leadership and Decision Making and The New Leadership Get To Know Him! His Greatest
Work Is... Thank You For Listening! Start This theory was proposed by Vroom in 1964. He stresses and focuses on outcomes & not on needs. The theory states that the intensity of a tendency to perform in a particular manner is dependent on the intensity of an expectation that the performance will be followed by a definite outcome and on the appeal of that outcome to an individual. It proposes that a person will decide to behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be. Expectancy Theory
By Victor Vroom Presented By:
Farah Amira VROOM is : A business school professor
at the Yale School of Management What is Expectancy Theory? Implications :
> The managers can correlate the preferred outcomes to the aimed performance levels.
> The managers must ensure that the employees can achieve the aimed performance levels.
> The deserving employees must be rewarded for their exceptional performance.
> The reward system must be fair & just in an organization.
> Organizations must design interesting, dynamic & challenging jobs.
> The employee's motivation level should be continually assessed through various techniques such as questionnaire, personal interviews etc. The Expectancy Theory... Who Is Victor Vroom? VALENCE,
EXPECTANCY
&
INSTRUMENTALITY Advantages of the Expectancy Theory:
> Based on self interest of the individual who wants to minimize dissatisfaction and achieve maximum satisfaction.
> Stresses upon the expectations & perception, what is real and actual is immaterial.
> Emphasizes on rewards or pay offs.
> Focuses in psychological extravagance where final objective of individual is to attain maximum pleasure and least pain. Limitations of the Expectancy Theory:
> Seems to be idealistic because quite a few individuals perceive high degree correlation between performance & rewards.
> Application of this theory is limited as reward is not directly correlated with performance in many organizations. It is related to other parameters also such as position, effort, responsibility, education and other Definition: Expectancy is the belief that ones effort will result in attainment of desired performance.

Explanation: Where someone tries really hard to achieve a goal and puts in the effort to achieve that goal. It is the expectancy that one’s effort will lead to the desired performance and is based on past experiences, self confidence, and the perceived difficulty of the performance goal.

Example:
1. Paul studies hard for his building class puts that effort in to pass the class
2. If I work harder than everyone else in the plant will I produce more? Expectancy: Effort - Performance Definition: Instrumentality is the belief that a person will receive a reward if the performance expectation is met.

Explanation: Where somebody expects a reward for their hard work.

Example:
1. Arnold works at McDonalds and is the best fry maker in the state and expects to get a raise
2. If I produce more than anyone else in the plant, will I get rewarded? Insrumentality: Peformance - Rewards Valence Definition: The value the individual places on the rewards based on their needs, goals, values and Sources of Motivation.

Explanation: How emotionally attached you are to the reward.

Example:
1. Two teams are neck to neck and they are rival teams and one team wins and celebrates and the other is dreadful and disappointed to the lost
2. Is a raise or promotion worth the extra effort? Scenario The manager at ABC Cleaning Agency hires Maria and pays him RM10 an hour. Maria wants to at least get paid RM15 an hour. The manager makes a deal with Maria where if she works hard and shows him that she deserves the pay then she will give him the RM15 an hour. 3 Motivational Relationship Motivational Force = Expectancy X Instrumentality X Valence
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