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Copy of Audience theories
Transcript of Copy of Audience theories
People commit violence because of all the violence on TV and in computer games. If we didn't allow violence in computer games and on TV children wouldn't hurt each other or grow up to be violent.
The Hypodermic Model
This model suggests that audiences passively absorb the content of media texts.
According to this model there is a direct correlation between the content of TV, video games etc. and the behaviours and values of audiences. Modern anti-social and criminal behaviour can be largely attributed to the influence of the media.
Is the media to blame?
The London riots
The Columbine massacre
Psychologists (Bandura, Ross and Ross) have carried out experiments that claim to verify the cause and effect relationship between the media and the behaviour of audiences.
Bandura's experiments involved showing small children a recording of a young woman behaving violently towards a Bobo doll and observing their subsequent behaviour toward a similar doll.
To what extent do you agree?
McCabe and Martin
argue that imitations of violence was a likely outcome of media violence due to the common representations of such behaviour as heroic.
This convinces children that under some circumstances the normal social rules applying to violence can be suspended - this is known as 'disinhibition effect'.
Preferred, Negotiated Oppositional
Preferred(dominent) reading is the one preferred or intended by the transmitter (eg writer, producer or designer
Negotiated (surbordinate reading) is one in which the reader does not totally accept but questions the intentions of the producewr and social values
Oppositional(radical)is when the reader recognises but rejects the dominent meaning and gives it another meaning
Case study: Consider this Levi jeans advert
PREFERRED, Levi jeans are cool and desirable
NEGOTIATED,accept but questions intention eg someone who is older won't be attracted to this advert or just because wearing levi's won't make me cool.
OPPOSITIONAL, reader rejects intented reading and gives it another meaning eg went out and bought the theme music that accompanied the visual images
Can you come up with an advert or film and interpret it's meaning?
Blumler and Katz
Uses and Gratifications
The uses and gratifications theory puts emphasis on the audience as active participants in a relationship between media and audience, rather than a passive, message absorbing, sponge.
In the uses and gratifications theory the audience seeks out interactions with the media to fulfill a particular need.
For instance, in social situations people might feel more comfortable if they have certain facts and information about particular events to fuel conversation. By seeking out media the need to be informed is fulfilled.
What kinds of texts might fulfill this need?
DAVID MORLEY, did some of the best known research on this at Birmingham University between 1975 and 1979
The project was based on the programme NATIONWIDE and how different audiences from different backgrounds and cultural experiences interpreted episodes of the current affairs programme.
Moment of encoding
Moment of text
Moment of decoding
Stuart Hall believed that the emphasis in the making of meaning did not belong with the text, but with the consumer.
There are 4 categories for uses and gratifications:
Entertainment and diversion. Pleasure of the text is being transported into the world of the film and forget about daily life.
usually through empathy with the main character, through the positioning of the camera, making him/her central to almost every shot. We know it is their story, so we care what happens to them and we follow them.
and personal relationships - discussing the texts with others at work, or at home or on facebook - participating in social experience of audience responses.
for information and education - to find out about an issue, perhaps vicariously through someone else's experience - that you would not otherwise get an opportunity to experience.
How do you use media texts? For any or all of these reasons? Can you think of examples of specific texts that you use for any of these reasons?