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Sex vs. Parental Relationships

Jess, Eliza, and Kelsey's AP Statistic Project
by

Kelsey Christensen

on 3 June 2010

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Transcript of Sex vs. Parental Relationships

Double click anywhere & add an idea Sex vs. parental relationships by Kelsey, Eliza, and Jess Our study was conducted to explore the relationship between a teen's gender and their partiality for one parent or another.

We decided to distribute a survey to 70 people at Springfield High School. This is more than 10% of the school, but we wanted to account for the possibility of incorrectly completed surveys and absenteeism.

With our data, we will conduct a two-proportion z-test to see if the proportion of males closer to their fathers is significantly different from the proportion of females closer to their mothers.
Our Survey Dear Selected Student,You have been randomly selected to participate in an AP Statistics Survey. Please fill out this form and return it to the person who distributed it to you. This is completely confidential and anonymous.

Are you:___ Male ___ Female

Are you more emotionally connected to your legal guardian, parent, or other adult caretaker who is:___ Male ___ Female Our Sample We decided to survey 70 people. We stratified our 70-people sample by gender. We found that 52% of the population of Springfield High School is female, while 48% of the population is male. We applied this proportion to our sample of 70 people and came up with 37 females and 33 males. To find our 70 people, we assigned every student a number 1-514 (514 is the population of the school). We generated number 1-514, ignoring repeats and recording the number of males generated and the number of females generated. When we reached 33 males, we ignored integers associated with males and when we reached 37 females we ignored integers associated with females. We ended up with 50 resps
Findings by Gender
76% of females are closer to their mother figure
24% of females are closer to their father figure

33% of males are closer to their father figure
66% of males are closer to their mother figure

Findings by Sample 71.4% of students are closer to their mother figure
28.6% of students are closer to their father figure

44.9% of students are closer to the parent of the opposite sex
55.1% of students are closer to the parent of the same sex Our Test Assumptions and Conditions:
Independence assumption: We assume that one person's partiality towards a certain parent does not affect another person's partiality towards a certain parent.
Our sample wound up being 50 people due to absenteeism. This is less than 10% of the population.
Our sample was randomly selected.



With the assumptions and conditions met, we proceeded with a two-proportion z test. We found that there were not many experiments or studies done that were similar to our topic. There has not been much research on parental closeness based on gender. In other words, we did not find any experiments or studies that had a goal of discovering a difference in the population proportion of females closer to their mothers or males closer to their fathers. The most similar study we found was a study comparing emotional closeness of males and females to their mothers.
This study explored whether mother-daughter pairs were more emotionally connected than mother-son pairs. 41 mother-child pairs were videotaped in a semi-structured play setting. The children in the study were ages four and five. Emotional closeness in this study was defined as "physical proximity, mutual eye contact, and global level of enjoyment." The results rendered from this study showed that females were more emotionally close to their mothers than males. Females were physically closer to their mothers, had more mutual eye contact, and had a higher level of global enjoyment. We can't be sure of how accurate this study was, because we aren't sure of how reliable the source is. Also, the assumptions and conditions that must be satisfied in order to have accurate results were not discussed in this study. No graphical displays were shown, and no hard numbers were discussed when talking about the conclusions of this study.
Another article we found that was similar to our topic explored parental bonds. Most of the article discussed changes in the parental bond based on different stages of adolescence. However, it did briefly discuss the strength of parental-child bonds based on the gender of the child and parent. The article talked about many different conclusions that have been found in a variety of studies researching the parental bond based on gender, finding conflicting evidence such as children are usually closer in general to their mothers rather than their fathers, females having a weaker parental bond than males, and vice versa. But the general conclusion was that, "Generally, however, there is little or no difference reported between the parental bonds of the two sexes."
Based on the lack of precedents in relation to our study, we formed our hypothesis by assuming that there would be no statistically significant evidence to prove that there was a difference in the population parameter of females compared to males closer to the same sex parent.

Citation of research sources:
1. http://www.springerlink.com/content/t9u2719521357532/
2. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_146_37/ai_89942834/ Though it seemed most statistically sound to perform a does-not-equal test (it's less presumptuous), I expected from the beginning that girls would more often be close to the parent of the same sex than guys. This was not confirmed by a test, but one can observe that the proportion of girls closer to their mothers is higher than the proportion of boys closer to their father. Also, the observation that teens tend to be closer to their mother in general was interesting. I think the topic of the study proved immensely interesting. Sources of Error and Bias...
-The use of stratification was unjustified. In a future study of this nature, it would be prudent to have two equally sized groups.
-When students filled out their forms, they may have misinterpreted the question.
-Students may have felt rushed in filling out the form, giving us half-hearted responses.
-Of course, we did not have over 10 failures in our groups. We assume the number of failures were representative.
This project helped reiterate everything we learned this year in Statistics, and allowed me to apply these concepts to a real life situation. Our topic of interest, which was to discover if teenagers were usually closer to the parent of the same gender, was very interesting. When we began to research this topic I thought most kids would be closer to their same gender parent, but there wouldn't be a very big difference in the male and female population proportions of males who were closer to their father or females closer to their mother. After receiving our randomly selected data, we found that there is reason to reject the null hypothesis; there is sufficient evidence to suggest that girls and boys are not partial to the same sex parent equally as often. From our data, it appeared that most teenagers were more partial to their mothers, regardless of gender.
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