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Tropical Savannah

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Tatiana Freire

on 17 October 2012

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Transcript of Tropical Savannah

Biome Project Tropical Savannah Cerrados in Brazil Types of Tropical Savannahs Tropical savannahs typically have a wet/dry climate. Its Köppen climate group is AW. The A stands for a tropical climate, and the W for a dry season in the winter.
In the savanna biome there is a distinct dry season, which is in the winter months. Savannas get all their rain in the summer months. During the winter months of a savannah, sources of water and plants tend to shrivel up, causing large migration of animals to find food. This dry season lasts from December to March.
In the wet season or summer months all of the plants are lush and the rivers flow freely which causes the animals migrate back to graze. This wet season lasts from around May to September.
The annual precipitation in a typical Savannah is averagely 10 to 30 inches of rainfall. This rainfall exists only in the summer months.
During the dry season, the winter season is not drastically cooler than the summer months because it is in the tropical latitudes. The savanna climate has a temperature range of 68° to 86° F (20° - 30° C). In the winter, it is usually about 68° to 78° F (20° - 25° C). In the summer the temperature ranges from 78° to 86° F (25° - 30° C). In a Savanna the temperature does not change a lot. When it does, its very gradual and not drastic. Climate most of the savanna region is less than 500 metres above sea-level.
Savannahs tend to be relatively flat and grassy, which is why they are typically referred as tropical grasslands Topography Plants of the savannas are highly adapted to grow in this environment of long periods of drought and minimal rainfall:
They have long tap roots that can reach the deep water table
thick bark to resist annual fires
trunks that can store water
leaves that drop of during the winter to conserve water
Grasses discourage animals from grazing on them; some grasses are too sharp or bitter tasting for some animals, but not others, to eat. (This ensures that every species of animal has something to eat.)
Many grasses grow from the bottom up, so that the growth tissue doesn't get damaged by grazers.
Many plants of the savanna also have storage organs like bulbs and corms for making it though the dry season. Unique Adaptations Animals on the savanna have many unique adaptations that allow them to survive in this biome:
long legs or wings to be able to go on long migrations.
Many burrow under ground to avoid the heat or raise their young in a protected environment
Animals don't sweat to lose body heat, so they lose it through panting or through large areas of exposed skin, or ears, like those of the elephant. Animal's Unique Adaptations Water Natural Resources Tropical savannas extend through the nations of Botswana, Namibia, and Kenya in Africa, southern Brazil, India, and Australia. Serengeti in Africa Land/ Soil W
D Natural Resources Although a typical Savannah is composed of nothing but an endless plain with tall grasses and the occasional tree, people have found numerous natural resources within the savannah biome. Those who need this biome to thrive, have adapted and utilized what is available to them. Sample Location: Serengeti National Park 5,700 sq miles (14,760 km²) Provides Land, Livestock, Wood, Water Cerrados in Brazil Soils: There are three main types of soils in the Tropical Savannah. Soil is an outcome of five broad factors: parent material, climate, relief/slope, time and organisms.

These are broken down into classes. These Classes are called horizons which basically just means layers. These are classified by the different sized particles.
Horizon A: Sand is the biggest of the three particles. Sand has a low water holding capacity and high water infiltration rate. Low vegetation rate.
Horizon B: Silt silt is the middle
Horizon C: Clay. Clay is the opposite as sand as far as its characteristics. Clay is the smallest of the three particles. Clay has a higher holding capacity and a lower water infiltration rate. Low vegetation rate Soil Composition The most common soil in the Tropical Savannah is a horizon C (clay) type soil. While there are exceptions, the soil in the Tropical Savannah is known for its infertile characteristics.
Even during the rain season in the summer the soil is very infertile.This is because during the other months the soil becomes dried and hard. Any nutrients that was in soil becomes covered by the dry soil.
This is partially because the lack of rain, but it is also due to the climate. The climate rarely drops below 25 degrees Celsius which is about 77 degrees Fahrenheit. These temperatures create a hard surface for soil. These are known as Lateritic soils which are the most weathered and infertile of all soil types across the tropical savannas, are found in areas closer to the coast with high summer rainfall. These are a thick hard and rocky surface which are very in infertile because the tropical weathering or laterization is long lasting under rock. Soil Composition Con't Grasslands Dog's Tooth and common finger grass are some of the African savanna's short grass forage eaten by wildebeest and other common ungulate species like buffalo, zebra, Grant’s gazelle, Thompson’s gazelle. Impala prefer Guinea Grass where possible. Communities Termites in South Africa that collects green grass & seeds which it stores in granaries inside its nest. Termites are critical in detritus decomposition in savannas.
Aardvarks are found in all regions, from dry savanna to rain forest, where there are sufficient termites for food.
Lions, & hyenas will take aardvarks as prey as well as hunting the grazing animals. Communities
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