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Hypersensitivity Reactions

jafar hasbullah and Rameez adam
by

Bent Neck

on 31 January 2013

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Transcript of Hypersensitivity Reactions

Introduction Type I Hypersensitivity reaction Immediate / anaphylactic hypersensitivity reactions Hyper sensitivity reactions Jafar Hasbullah
Rameez Adam
Department of Biomedical Science Body recognizes normal antigens as harmful substances and it causes clinical disorders to individuals


– antigens that give rise to hypersensitivity •Type I hypersensitivity – eg .Urticaria ,asthma
•Type II hypersensitivity- eg . blood mismatching ,Celiac disease
•Type III hypersensitivity – eg . Lupus nephritis , Serum sickness
•Type IV hypersensitivity –eg . Poison Ivy Reacts in about 15-30 minutes . But in some cases it can delay till about 10-12 hours


Pollen
Dust mite
Insects





1.skin - urticaria and eczema
2.eyes (conjunctivitis)
3.nasopharynx (rhinorrhea, rhinitis)
4.bronchopulmonary tissues (asthma)
5.gastrointestinal tract (gastroenteritis)
Histamine
Tryptase
Kininogenase
ECF-A(tetrapeptides)


leukotriene B4
leukotriene C4, D4
prostaglandins D2
PAF Preformed mediators in granules Newly formed mediators Allergens – Involves – Asthma Type II Hypersensitivity reaction Tissue specific /cytotoxic hypersensitivity Genetic disease
effects the small intestine ( villi )
Celiac disease attacks the villi Celiac disease Can affect a variety of organs and tissues -normally endogenous,
or some times
exogenous chemicals( Haptens ) antigens e.g .Gluten - minutes to hours The reaction time mediated by antibodies IgM or IgG Type III Hypersensitivity reaction Immune complex hypersensitivity Reaction time - 3 - 10 hours mediated by soluble immune complexes IgG IgM
complement (C3a, 4a and 5a ) exogenous
chronic infections ( bacterial,viral ,parasitic )
endogenous antigen - Mediated by damage is caused by platelets and neutrophils micro-angiopathy Type IV Hypersensitivity reaction Cell mediated / Delayed Hypersensitivity reaction Mediated by T cells and macrophages. 48-72 hours after antigen exposure The reaction time Acts against

intracellular pathogens
mycobacteria
fungi
transplant rejection
tumor immunity 1. Antigen - contact
2. antigen engulfed by macrophages and monocytes
3.processed and presented to a T cell that has a specific receptor for that processed antigen
4.T cells secrete interleukin (IL)–1, IL-2, IL-6, and other lymphokines
5.Cytotoxic T cells can also be activated.
6.The recruited macrophages can form giant cells j 1 slide 2 mins Poison Ivy 1. antigens- present inside the body
2. antibodies are attracted to the antigen
3. compliments acts
inflammation
Neutrophil attraction
4. Cell death Mediated by IGE Asthma is a disorder which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow, leading to wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.
•Animal hair
•Dust
•Chemicals in the air or in food
•Mold
•Pollen Triggers
1.environmental triggers
2.The airways narrow and produce excess mucus
bronchi contract into spasm
Inflammation gluten ( wheat , barley , rye ) Allergen 1. antigens binds to the surface
2. antibodies are attracted to the antigen
3. compliments acts
inflammation
Neutrophil attraction
4. Cell death
Abdominal pain
Constipation
Decreased appetite
Diarrhea,
Lactose intolerance
Nausea and vomiting
Unexplained weight loss symptoms Serum sickness Contact antigen-which causes dermatitis interleukin Cytotoxic T Activation
Macrophage recruitment Allergen Four types Type I Hypersensitivity reaction: eg. Type II Hypersensitivity reaction eg ,: Type III Hypersensitivity reaction eg . بسم اللة الرحمن الرحيم
10 days after the injuction symptoms will be like fever, urticaria, arthralgia, lymphadenopathy, spleenomegaly, glomerulonephritis(glomerulitis associated with infective endocarditis) can be due to medications or to antiserum Serum sickness is similar to an allergy, in that the body miss identifies a protein from the antiserum or medication as harmful and activates the immune system to act against it Type IV Hypersensitivity reaction Conclusion IGM - Hapten ( molecule from plant )
binds to carrier protein
engulfed by macrophages antigen Re-exposure topic
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