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Sociological Research Methods (Chapter 2)
Transcript of Sociological Research Methods (Chapter 2)
Normative Research-examines issues from the perspective of "what ought to be"
Empirical Research-uses the scientific method and starts from a more neutral position
Quantitative Research vs. Qualitative Research
-Uses data that can be measured numerically
-Interpretive description (words) instead of numbers are used to analyze patterns
Deductive vs. Inductive
Deductive-begins with a theory, uses research to test
1)theories generate hypotheses
2)hypotheses lead to observations
3)observations lead to the formation of generalizations
4)generalizations are used to support the theory, suggest modifications to it, or to refute it
Deductive vs. Inductive
Inductive-researcher collects information and then generates theories from the analysis
1)specific observations suggest generalizations
2)generalizations produce a tentative theory
3)the theory is tested through the formation of hypotheses
4)hypotheses may provide suggestions for additional observations
Qualitative or Quantitative?
Study of standardized test scores by region
Study of college football attendance in correlation with wins and losses by a University
Study of attitudes toward sexual norms by generation
-a tentative statement of the relationship between two or more concepts
-a concept with measurable traits or
-causes or determines a dependent variable
-caused by the independent variable
Independent or Dependent Variable?
Study on student success in college
Amount of time studying
Random Sampling vs. Probability Sampling
Random Sampling-every member of an entire population being studied has the same chance of being selected
example: College students, survey every 5th person that enters library
Probability Sampling-choosing participants for a study on the basis of specific characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, etc.)
example: choosing hispanic females on a college campus for a survey
The number of days since your last haircut
would be an independent variable since it causes a change
The length of your hair
would be the dependent variable since it is changed by the independent variable
The first two would be independent variables because they cause a change. The final grade would be a dependent variable because it gets changed by another variable
The first two would be quantitative because they deal with numerical data. The 3rd study would be quantitative because it deals with attitudes.