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Sociological Research Methods (Chapter 2)

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Phillip S

on 18 January 2014

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Transcript of Sociological Research Methods (Chapter 2)

Normative vs. Empirical
Normative Research-examines issues from the perspective of "what ought to be"
Empirical Research-uses the scientific method and starts from a more neutral position
Quantitative Research vs. Qualitative Research
Quantitative research
-Uses data that can be measured numerically
Qualitative research
-Interpretive description (words) instead of numbers are used to analyze patterns
Research Methods
Deductive vs. Inductive
Deductive-begins with a theory, uses research to test
1)theories generate hypotheses
2)hypotheses lead to observations
3)observations lead to the formation of generalizations
4)generalizations are used to support the theory, suggest modifications to it, or to refute it
Deductive vs. Inductive
Inductive-researcher collects information and then generates theories from the analysis
1)specific observations suggest generalizations
2)generalizations produce a tentative theory
3)the theory is tested through the formation of hypotheses
4)hypotheses may provide suggestions for additional observations
Qualitative or Quantitative?
Study of standardized test scores by region

Study of college football attendance in correlation with wins and losses by a University

Study of attitudes toward sexual norms by generation
Research Terms
hypothesis
-a tentative statement of the relationship between two or more concepts

variable
-a concept with measurable traits or
characteristics

independent variable
-causes or determines a dependent variable

dependent variable
-caused by the independent variable
Independent or Dependent Variable?
Study on student success in college

Amount of time studying
Class attendance
Final Grade
Random Sampling vs. Probability Sampling
Random Sampling-every member of an entire population being studied has the same chance of being selected

example: College students, survey every 5th person that enters library

Probability Sampling-choosing participants for a study on the basis of specific characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, etc.)

example: choosing hispanic females on a college campus for a survey
The number of days since your last haircut
would be an independent variable since it causes a change
The length of your hair
would be the dependent variable since it is changed by the independent variable

The first two would be independent variables because they cause a change. The final grade would be a dependent variable because it gets changed by another variable
The first two would be quantitative because they deal with numerical data. The 3rd study would be quantitative because it deals with attitudes.
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