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Ch. 5 : Congress

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sam jenkins

on 10 February 2016

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Transcript of Ch. 5 : Congress


B. Political Parties
1. Two major parties in the United States: The Democrats and The Republicans
a. Ideological Differences drive our government because there are different ways to rule over people




B. Political Parties

2. Political Parties are pre-made Alliances in government


Why would a group of people with the same beliefs/ ideology be helpful in government? Unhelpful?
3. Modern House of Representatives
a.Districts (Only for the House)
i.number of Reps based on population
ii. government takes a census every 10 years
iii. Number of total Reps is capped at 435 so every 10 years some states gain a Rep while other lose
b. Gerrymandering
i. The Constitution doesn't say how States will create Congressional Districts so the States decide
ii. Parties rearrange districts to better have their ideology better represented
iii. Big Cities tend to vote more Democrats, rural small areas vote more Republicans
iv. Parties will either create a district splitting up a city or group a rural area with a big city
Is creating a district of all African-American voters in a Southern State together better than having them spread across several districts?

One loud voice in one district or a quieter voice in different districts?


Questions to turn in

1. How is that more people vote for Democrats nation-wide but there are more Republican Representatives in the House? Explain
2. Does Gerrymandering help or hurt our country? Why or why not?
3. Is congress's powers limited to only the enumerated powers or can they do things not spelled out in the Constitution? How do you know?
4. What do you see as your Political Ideology? Why?
5. What is the Filibuster?
b. Parties work to make the government reflect their ideologies
c. Problem is because there are so many different ideologies that Congress becomes a traffic jam
1. What are the 4 things an ideology focuses on?

2. What are the eight factors that influence your ideology?

3. What does it mean when someone is left-wing ideology?

4. What is the most extreme left-wing ideology?

5. What does it mean when someone is right-wing ideology?

6. What is the most extreme right-wing ideology?

7. What is the difference between economic and politics

8. Why do we use a spectrum when explaining different ideologies?
1. What are the four things an ideology focuses on?

The nature of human beings, the interpretation of the past, vision of the future, and the role of government

2. What are the eight factors that influence your ideology?

Culture, language, media, relationship to the land, gender, environment, spirituality or religion, and family
3. What does it mean when someone is left-wing ideology?

encouraging economic EQUALITY through government intervention
4. What is the most extreme left-wing ideology?

Radical Revolutionary
5. What does it mean when someone has a right-wing ideology?

Equal rights and the opportunity to compete by having LESS government intervention
6. What is the most extreme right-wing ideology?

Reactionaries
7. What is the difference between economics and politics?

Economics focuses on the allocation of resources (money) while politics focuses on the allocation of power (democracy or dictatorships)
8. Why do we use a spectrum when explaining different ideologies?

Because no one is really just one ideology, we have aspects of various ideas, but what we believe in more strongly determines where we sit on the spectrum
Chapter 5: Congress
The Powers of Congress
In 2006, Congress swung over to Democrats...

...and then in 2010, Congress swung back to Republicans
The Organization of Congress: Committees
Standing Committees
Select Committees
Joint Committees
Conference Committee
permanently established legislative committees that consider and are responsible for legislation within a certian subject area
Senators serve on NO MORE than TWO

Representatives serve on ONE
Standing Committees in the Senate
Agrculture, Nutrition, & Forestry
Appropriations
Armed Services
Banking, Housing, & Urban Affairs
Budget Commerce, Science, & Transportation Energy, & Natural Resources
Environment & Public Works
Finance
Foreign Relations
Health, Education, Labor, & Pensions
Homeland Security & Governmental Affairs
Judiciary
Rules and Administration
Small Business and Entrepreneurship
Veterans' Affairs
Select Committees: Aging, Ethics, Indian affairs, & Intelligence
Standing Committees in the House
Appropriations
Rules
Ways & Means
Agriculture
Armed Services
Education & Labor
Energy & Commerce
Financial Services
Foriegn Affairs
Homeland Security
Judiciary
Transportation & Infrastructure
Budget
House Administration
Natural Resources
Oversight & Government Reform
Science & Technology
Small Business
Standards of Official Conduct
Veterans' Affairs
Intelligence
congressional committees appointed for a limited purpose and time
do not introduce legislation
i.e. Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities & the 9/11 Commission
committees on which both senators and representatives serve
i.e. Joint Committee on the Library
joint committees appointed to resolve differences in the Senate and House versions of the same bill
Each member of Congress represents the people (constituents) of a geographical area.

Job is to represent constituents interests

Congressman (and women) also deal with demands of interest groups (organized groups of like-minded people who join together to influence government/policies.)

“To vote for my constituents or for the nation? That is
the question” ---------->

What do you think most members of Congress are like? (age, class, race, sex, etc)



+ = Congressmen


Members of Congress
The Structure of Congress
Congress is made up of two houses (bicameral)
They are the _______ and the _______.



Representatives based on population
There are _____ seats in the House
2 year terms
Which party currently controls the
House?

House of Representatives

Equal representation
There are _____ seats in the Senate?
6 year terms
Not all seats up for election at one time

Senate
Congress has the power to approve government spending. This is called an appropriation (bill that sets aside funds for specific purpose)

Congress can't lower pay of President and Judges



“you better not mess with my money”

______>

Congress votes and approves treaties made by the President, as well as approving/rejecting presidential appointees. (like a supreme court judge)



“I know I'm old but don't reject me”------------------>

The Power of Advice and Consent
Congress also has the power to charge the executive and judicial branch with wrongdoings and bring them to trial.
Congress has only impeached 17 officials
What 2 Presidents have been impeached?


<-------”whoa!, we got real lucky!-------->

Impeachment Power
Powers of Congress
Expressed- powers listed in Const.
Implied- Suggested by the Const.
Inherent- Powers that all governments possess. (controlling borders, make agreements with other nations)

Types of Powers
Tax- Charge levied by the government
Direct Tax- Must be paid directly to the national government
Indirect taxes – tax levied on one person but passed on to another for payment to gov’t


Power to Tax
Allows the gov’t to function when there is not enough revenue to cover the expenses (deficit)

Borrowing Power
Power to regulate interstate and foreign trade
Limits
Cannot tax exports
Cannot favor one port over another
Cannot require vessels to pass through or pay duties in one state or another
Could not interfere with slave trade until 1808

Commerce Power
Power to coin money (denied to states)

Currency Power
Declare war
Raise and maintain army and navy
Post offices
Copyright and patent laws

Other Expressed Powers
necessary and proper clause (elastic)- power to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution the expressed powers…. Much of the adaptability of the Constitution is due to this clause

Implied Powers
Strict v. Loose Constructionists

What’s the difference?

Subpoena – requires a person to testify

Electoral Duties- House chooses President, Senate approves Vice President. Wait!!!!!!!!! What??????????

Non-Legislative Powers
The House of Representatives
Formal Qualification - ?????

Informal Qualifications – (things that help) List some!

House of Representatives


appeal to voters
Ability to raise money
Famous
Military background
Faith
family
Reapportionment – seats are redistributed bases on census. How often does this happen?

Gerrymandering – Drawing district boundaries for political advantage

Speaker of the House –= Most powerful member of House and elected presiding officer of the House.


(This guy)







Speaker of the House
Speaker of the House comes from party that holds the most seats.
Currently the Speaker is John Boehner
Assigns bills to committees
Determines what will be debated
2nd in line for succession to the presidency

Speaker of the House
Floor leader – elected to manage actions and strategies of party in the House.

Whips – elected by each party to encourage party members to vote a certain way

Party caucus – meeting of all member from a certain party

Other Leadership Posts
Formal qualities – We know them!
Informal – Same as House, but…..
Senate members are usually older, and wealthier then House members
Not as diverse


Senate
President of the Senate is the The Vice President.

Not a member of the Senate.

(That Guy)--

Senate Leadership
President pro tempore - Fills in for VP when absent. From majority party.

Senate majority leader – Most powerful position in Senate. (spokesperson)



--- “my name is Harry Reid.
I’m the Senate majority leader.”
“My name is Daniel---
Inouye. I’m the
President Pro Tempore.”

Senate Leadership
Unlike the House, Senate places few limits on debate

Filibuster – Opponents of a measure take to the floor of the Senate and refuse to stop talking in order to prevent measure from coming up for a vote. (can be ended with a 60 senators vote.) show video!

Cloture – An end to debate

Rules and Traditions
Who comes up with ideas for a bill?
Who introduces bills?
How is a bill introduced?
What is a rider?
Joint resolution – Just like a bill, used for out of the ordinary circumstances.(used to propose amendments)

Introducing a Bill
Concurrent resolution- do not have force of law. Addresses matters that affect Congress
Bills in Committee – What is a committee????????
Most bills that are proposed are killed in committee (96%)


Types of Committees
Standing committee –permanent committees
(Example – Homeland Security, Small Business, budget)
Select committees – Carry out specific tasks not covered by standing committees(investigations)
Joint committees – Committee formed with House and Senate members (tax policy)


The Legislative Process
Senate committee chairs hold a lot of power.
The chair of the committee always goes to the most senior senator.


What are the pros and cons of the seniority rule???????

Seniority Rule
House
Has Rules Committee (makes rules for how a bill can be debated)
Committee of the Whole

Senate
When bill leaves committee it goes to floor for debate! That simple
Seniority Rule

House/Senate
Bills Passed to law:
2010 –
250
2011 –
90
2012 –
60 so far
What is the problem???????

Congressional Problems
DEBATE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Bills on the Floor
Bill can only become law after passed in identical form from BOTH Houses.

Bill Becomes Law
Once bill is passed from BOTH Houses, it goes to the President’s desk
The President has 4 choices:
Sign bill into law
Not sign bill (after 10 days bill becomes law)
Veto the bill
Pocket Veto
What does the President do with the Bill?
Full transcript