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food security

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by

Stefano Balbi

on 22 July 2014

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Transcript of food security

agent based modeling & food security
3 hierarchical levels:
household
village
region

Food security
pillars:
1. availability
2. stability
3. utilization
4. access

need to establish
thresholds

household
village
region
ESPA ASSET CONCEPT
food entitlement
poverty

"Sam has found that the main coping strategy is to buy from the market. If there is a drought and maize fails, they will grow cassava, but they will not eat it. They will sell it at the market, and use the money to buy maize. Hence the economics of it all seem hugely important (SW)."
A
R
D
Actors
Resources
Dynamics
Interactions
I
Malawi
4. access
food provision and foraging strategies
coping strategies
3. utilization
food allocation
dietary preferences
1. availability
2. stability
seasonality
(time dependent phenomena)
Ecosystem services
Agri-production
Food Market
food prices
International trade
households
water
food
money
other physical assets (e.g. land, livestock)
social relations
growing
foraging
trading
consuming
between households
with the market
with ecosystem
with local institutions
how much economics?
need to use social networks ??
Actors: individuals
Actors: households (HH)
Actors: villages
Local
market
HH2
HH1
HH5
HH4
HH3
spatial
non-spatial
non-spatial
key questions

1. main sources of food
2. main cultivated crops
3. cash crops
4. other sources of income
5. main expenditures per HH
6. food consumption preferences
7. main coping strategies
open issues
1. local food prices
2. international trade
social conflicts
land ownership
A
B
M

@ village level
Factors of heterogeneity
4 well-being groups
1. initial endowment
2. number of individuals
3. ...
Crops
maize
rice
pigeon peas
ground nuts
cassava
Reviewing MTWICHE
Sources of income
formal employment
sales of livestock
ox cart hire
irrigation farming (rice)
fishing /fish ponds
sand mining
casual labor selling
selling charcoal
selling firewood
Prices
maize 60K /kg
pigeon peas 300K /kg
ground nuts 400 K/ kg
markets
songani
malosa
cultivation method
Dimba vs rainfed
Food from forest negligible = mangoes
"food available at markets, the problem is cash"
Ganyu
???
malaria
population growth seen as an issue
firewood scarcity --> burning plastic
loss of soil fertility
livestock as change of status
borehole water >
ADMARC
goats
cattle
chickens
pigs
river
water is crucial >
transportation means
cars
bicycles
walking
infrastructure
churches
schools
boreholes
piped water
bridges
minimarket
land holding size

>
matrilinear system
seasonality
population growth > deforestation > water availability

unreliable rainfall patterns
external interventions / dev. proj.
individual strategies
collective strategies
farm clubs
conservation agriculture
afforestation
microfinance
coping with food insecurity
casual jobs
fruit trees
second choice food
go to bed without food (adults)
one meal per day
prostitution
begging
agencies' aid
application of manure
use of artificial fertilizer
irrigation farming
intercropping
cultivation of new crops
(legumes)
tabacco
(sustainability)
common good regime?
can we avoid?
Full transcript