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Segregation and the Civil Rights Movement.
Transcript of Segregation and the Civil Rights Movement.
What was it like in the beginning of the 1950's?
What were Lynchings?
Brown v. Board of Education 1954.
School Integration and Voting Rights in 1957.
The Freedom Riders
The Civil Rights Act of 1964.
In the beginning of the 1950's blacks and whites were separated by the color of their skin. During this time there was also a set of laws in place specifically made for black people. They were called Jim Crow laws. Under the laws of Jim Crow African Americans were forced to be second class citizens, and if they broke these laws there were serious consequences for doing so, usually Lynchings.
Lynchings was the process of murdering a person in the capitol of a city, in front of a large crowd of people. Although lynchings were done to both black and white people. But lynchings were mostly done to black people when breaking Jim Crow laws. The ways of killing included shooting, burning, and the most common being hanging. When a white person was going to attend a black lynching, they would get discounts when riding a rail road to it. They would also take pictures and keep or sell them as souvenirs.
Even though in 1954 the case of Brown v. Board of Education stated that segregation in public schools is "unconstitutional" some states didn't follow those rules. In Arkansas a group of nine black students attended Little Rock High School. Everyday they were met face to face with angry mobs taunting them and threatening them. On the first day of school, the governor of Arkansas ordered National Body guards to block the school entrance to prevent the students from attending the school. In return President Eisenhower god federal troops to protect the children and to help integrate the school. Later on the students graduated from the school. Also in this year congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1957 which authorizes the Justice Department to investigate cases where African Americans where denied voting rights in the South.
By: Gabriela Almanzar
What were Jim Crow Laws?
Jim Crow laws were a set of laws that were made in 1877. They demanded racial segregation in all public facilities. Some of the laws include the following:
A black male could not offer his hand (to shake hands) with a white male because it implied being socially equal. A black male could not offer his hand a white woman, because he risked being accused of rape.
Blacks and whites were not supposed to eat together. If they did eat together, whites were to be served first, and some sort of division was to be placed between them.
Under no circumstance was a black male to offer to light the cigarette of a white female -- that gesture implied intimacy.
Blacks were not allowed to show public affection toward one another, especially kissing, because it offended whites.
Jim Crow etiquette prescribed that blacks were introduced to whites, never whites to blacks.
Whites did not use courtesy titles of respect when referring to blacks, For example, Mr., Mrs., Miss., Sir, or Ma'am. Instead, blacks were called by their first names. Blacks had to use courtesy titles when referring to whites, and were not allowed to call them by their first names.
If a black person rode in a car driven by a white person, the black person sat in the back seat, or the back of a truck.
In 1896 in the court ruling of the case Plessy v. Ferguson stated "separate but equal." Being in favor of separate facilities due to skin color. And it stayed like this until 1954 when a little girl's parents sued a school so she could attend an all white school. The little girl wins the case ending segregation in public schools for good. Something that helped get voters to vote in favor of Brown was when they asked little kids as young as 3 years old which doll they would prefer to play with, a brown doll or a white doll. Overall the kids said they would rather play with the white doll because it "had a nicer color." This helped the voters because it showed them that the fact that they are separating the children is affecting them more than they thought.
Rosa Parks' Bus Boycott of 1955
When people rode buses, white people got the privilege of sitting in the front of the bus where the seats were nicer, and black people had to sit in the back. Also if all the seats were full and a white person asked a black person to give up their seats they had to. That was that way until December 1st. Rosa Parks was sitting on the bus and when a white man asked her for her seat, she said no. She wouldn't give her seat up for anything. The bus driver had her arrested. This historic event is what started the Montgomery Bus Boycott that lasted about 13 months. This boycott is what ended racial segregation on buses. In 1956 a group of white people very angry about the bus boycott bomb four African American churches and the homes of Martin Luther King and E.D. Nixon in January and February.
On December 5 1960 the Supreme Court rules that segregation on vehicles traveling between states is unlawful, in the case of Boynton v. Virginia. On May 4 the Freedom Riders made up of 7 African Americans, and 6 whites leave Washington D.C. for the South to test the Boynton v. Virginia case. While in Alabama, now in two separate groups, are attacked in Anniston and Birmingham Alabama. The first group in Anniston is attacked by a mob who throws a firebomb into their bus. The second group is attacked by the Klu Klux Klan after being allowed to by local police. When they try to move on they weren't let on buses. They preformed many protests and President Kennedy orders that stricter fines will be charged for buses that refuse to be integrated.
In 1964 Congress finally passed the law that a lot of people were asking for. The Civil Rights Act banned public segregation and it banned employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, and more. This was proposed by President Kennedy and was later signed by his successor Lyndon Johnson. This was later followed by other African American equality acts one being the Voting Rights Act of 1965.