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INDG 201 Power Point Presentation

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ELNG 450

on 22 July 2013

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Transcript of INDG 201 Power Point Presentation

Aboriginal Education
Early Aboriginal Education
Legacy of Residential Schools
On-Reserve Schools
Off-Reserve Schools
Moving Forward
- many different groups and school systems

- must balance tradition and culture with knowledge needed to succeed in mainstream Canadian society

- communities, families, and historical context play a large role
On-Reserve Schools vs Off-Reserve Schools
- John Richards suggests professionalization and Aboriginal control of on-reserve schools

- must incorporate diverse culture and language

- make a place for Indigenous knowledge and voice in off-reserve schools

- must learn from successful schools, which consider Aboriginal students and involve Aboriginal leaders and parents
Early Childhood Education
- programs like Aboriginal Head Start

- culturally sensitive to Aboriginal youth

- support parents as well as children

- provide proper foundation for later education
Pre-Contact and Traditional Education
- education was not delivered institutionally, but rather by way of living

- deeply connected to the land, as both are crucial for cultural survival

- integral part of learning was the use of oral tradition, and using storytelling as means of giving valuable life lessons

- along with oral tradition, song and dance in ceremonies were used to help give meaning to lessons
Early Imposition of Colonial Education
- first instances of imposed education were with the first western settlers in Canada, and the missionaries that accompanied them

- primary goal of "civilizing" Aboriginal peoples to Christian ways

- most early schools allowed Aboriginal students the ability to maintain their cultural practices and traditions

- it is around the time of confederation that another shift in education starts to take place

Education as Oppression
- focus of government was massive expansion, and establishment of industry out West, believed Aboriginal people were a threat

- theory developed in Ottawa that if Aboriginal people gave up their culture, they could aid in this focus (get out of the way)

- education then went from a tool of knowing and growing to full out oppression and assault on Aboriginal peoples and their children

- Eurocentric, assimilative, and racist policies led to residential schools, which became the norm of Aboriginal education required by the treaties
On Attaining Self-Governance
- Aboriginal education used to be solely controlled by governments and religious institutions (Indian Action sections 114-122).

- the release of "Indian Control of Indian Education" by the National Brotherhood (now the Assembly of First Nations) in 1972

- Ottawa's policy reversal in 1973 that resulted in the repatriation of education back to the Aboriginal peoples control

- three education systems: First Nation-operated schools on reserves, provincially-administered schools off reserves, and federal schools operated by DIAND on reserves

- underfunding of on-reserve schools

- transferability issues (Waywayseecappo vs. Rossburn

- high drop-out rates

- local resistance and the effects of anti-school culture

- the "non-system" of the Aboriginal peoples school and the lack of accountability
Aboriginal Education Development
- Indian Act of 1951

- Treaty Education Steering Team

- "Treaties are the Foundation of Canada" by Chief Rose Laboucan

- curriculum renewal
Operation of Residential Schools
- 1920 amendment to Indian Act forced all children to attend residential schools

- 80 schools in Canada by 1931

- children suffered psychological, emotional, sexual, and physical abuse

- effects still have an impact today

- "Broken Circle: The Dark Legacy of Indian Residential Schools` by Theodore Fontaine"
A Policy of Assimilation
- viewed by government as a wider policy of assimilation implementing cultural genocide

- schools were run by churches

- robbed of traditional cultural practices, beliefs, language, and lifestyle
A Policy of Assimilation in 2013
- idea of assimilation still underlies the government`s relationship with Aboriginal people

- successful to an extent

- loss of culture and language still persists today

- Aboriginal youth today struggling to overcome legacy of assimilation policies and residential schools
Native Studies in K-9
- discussed in grades 4 and 5

- many of the outcomes expected from the curriculum are similar to outcomes from 10, 20 and 30 classes

- shows development in teaching children at a younger age, but repetition in classes later on causes students to have a lack of interest
Themes of Social Science Classes K-12
Grade 1: My Family
Grade 2: My Community
Grade 3: Community Comparisons
Grade 4: Saskatchewan
Grade 5: Canada
Grade 6: Canada and Our Atlantic Neighbours
Grade 7: Canada and Our Pacific Neighbours
Grade 8: The Individual In Canadian Society
Grade 9: The Roots of Society
Social Studies 10, 20, 30
Native Studies 10, 20, 30
Geography 10, 20, 30
History 10, 20, 30
Psychology 20, 30
Economics 30
Law 30
- Social Studies 30, Native Studies 30, History 30 are all Canadian History
Comparison of the Canadian Histories
- the basis of all 3 curriculums are from 1997

- resources will change but the basis will not

- the curriculums are all different, regardless of the common theme
Allie Fenson, Ashley Elgert, Chris Bryant, Kia Handoc, Valene Smokyday
Shannen Koostachin
of J.R. Nakogee School, Attawapiskat First Nation reserve
Year 2012
year 2010

Laboucan, R. (2009). Treaties are the foundation of Canada. ATA Magazine, 89.4, 6-7


Antone, E. M. (2000). Empowering aboriginal voice in aboriginal education. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 24(2), 92-101. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/230307757?accountid=13480

Dillon, H. (2002). Education on reserve needs fixing. Star-Phoenix: A8.

Lielburger, M. & Kielburger, C. (2011). First Nations' fight for proper schools should be campaign issue; better education on reserves would boost the economy, research shows. Edmonton Journal: A.13

Loboucane, R. (2010). Canada's Aboriginal education crisis. Windspeaker. Retrieved from http://www.ammsa.com/publications/windspeaker/canada%E2%80%99s-aboriginal-education-crisis-column

Mendelson, M. (2008). Improving education on reserves: A First Nations education authority act. Caledon Institute of Social Policy. Retrieved from http://www.caledoninst.org/publications/pdf/684eng.pdf

Nguyen, M. (2011). Closing the education gap: A case for aboriginal early childhood education in canada, A look at the aboriginal headstart program. Canadian Journal of Education, 34(3), 229-248. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/903202575?accountid=13480

Richards, J. (2008). Closing the Aboriginal/non-aboriginal education gaps. Backgrounder - C.D.Howe Institute, (116), 0_1,0_2,1-11. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/231193915?accountid=13480

Sniderman, A.S. (2012). Aboriginal students: An education underclass . Maclean's. Retrieved from http://www2.macleans.ca/2012/08/08/an-education-underclass/

Dickason, Olive Patricia, and William Newbigging. A Concise History of Canada's First Nations. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford, 2010
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