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Resins

Trenchless
by

Abhijeet Kishore

on 7 August 2013

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Transcript of Resins

AGENDA
BCEE
Concordia University

BLDG 6921
Trenchless Technologies

Group 3

Instructor:
Prof. Piero Salvo

Introduction
History
Future Prospects
CIPP- The Process
Installation
Types
Properties
Advantages
Limitations
Selection Criteria
Resin
Quality Assurance
Quality Control
Standards & Tests
Common Problems
QA/QC & Testing
A New Technology
Types
Properties
Need for Green Resins
Green Resins
Case Studies
Conclusion
CIPP
An efficient, reliable, eco-friendly and less expensive trenchless technique
Resin
Part of felt liner
An important ingredient for success of CIPP
Resin Dependent Properties
Structural Strength
Stiffness
Chemical Resistance
Factors affecting
properties of
LINER COMPOSITE
Characteristics of Resin Matrix
Characteristics of Reinforcing Fibers
Ratio between Resin and Fiber
Resins Employed for CIPP Applications
POLYESTER-styrene based

VINYL ESTER-styrene based

EPOXY-styrene free
STYRENE
Pros and Cons
Pros:
Styrene allows Copolymerization at rates 20-30 times faster
Lowers the viscosity
Cons:
Identified as potentially carcinogenic by EPA
Toxic to certain aquatic species
RESINS
POLYESTER
VINYL ESTER
EPOXY
Wet Out
Process
Curing
Calibration
Rollers
Installation
Resin
Thermosetting material

Function of Resin
Hold the fibers
Protect Fibres from mechanical and chemical deterioration

Determinants of
Short-term and
Long-term properties
Code to the desired length
Expel air inside the liner
Pump Resin mix inside liner
Allows uniform distribution of resin mix
Decides the final Thickness of liner
Using

Air Inversion

Pull-In
Resin hardening process
Methods

Water Curing
Steam Curing
Ambient Curing
UV Light Curing
POLYESTER
Most widely used resin
Cheapest of all
Used for municipal sewers
Interaction with Liner
Polyester + Styrene------>Hardened Product
Curing
"FREE RADICAL GENERATION REACTION"
Reaction initiated using
Steam
Water
UV
Resists flows in pH range 5-9
THERMAL RESISTANCE
ADHESION
MOISTURE ABSORPTION
Properties
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
Withstands a temp. of 140 F
Poor Adhesion Characteristics
Poor resistance against water
Balanced mechanical,chemical and electrical properties

Most economic system

Easy to handle

Longer pot life
High styrene emission

High shrinkage during curing
Advantages
Disadvantages
THERMAL RESISTANCE
MOISTURE ABSORPTION
VINYL ESTER
Hybrid form of Polyester resin
Possess improved mechanical and chemical characterictics
Employed for industrial applications
Interaction with Liner
Vinyl Ester + Organic Peroxide -----> Final Product
Curing
"FREE RADICAL GENERATION REACTION"
Reaction initiated by
Steam
Water
UV Light
PROPERTIES
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
Resists flow within pH range of 0.5 - 10.5
Withstands a temp. of 200 F
ADHESION
Average adhesion characteristics
Considerable resistance against water
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
Higher chemical and environmental resistance

Better mechanical properties than polyester

Suitable at elevated temperature

Easy to process
High styrene emission

Costlier than polyester

High shrinkage during curing
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
THERMAL RESISTANCE
ADHESION
MOISTURE ABSORPTION
EPOXY
Styrene free resin
Superior toughness and bonding properties
Used for pressure pipes and water mains
Expensive
REACTION WITH LINER
Epoxy + Hardener -----> Final Product
Curing
HARDENER initiated reaction
UV light results in the best curing
PROPERTIES
Resists flows within pH range 2-14
Withstands a temp. of 180 F
Best adhesion characteristics
Good resistance against moisture
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
Better mechanical and thermal resistance than others.

Good corrosion and chemical resistance.

Lower curing shrinkage

Longer life than others
More expensive than others

Mixing is critical

Handling is corrosive

Requires expertise during installation
STORAGE, HANDLING & SHIPPING
STORAGE
Resins:
Can be stored for longer times.
Proper Storage conditions required
Storage Tanks:
Vertical tanks for large volumes
Horizontal tanks for small volumes
Storage Conditions:
Temp: 60F-75F
Minimum storage:5500-6000 Gallons
Main parameters to be kept in mind:
Shelf Life
Storage Temperature
Direct Sunlight Presentation
Proper Sealed Container
HANDLING
SHIPPING
Best materials for resins storage and piping
Carbon steel
Stainless steel
Aluminium
Polyethylene
Polypropylene
Teflon

Styrene based polyester resins are sensitive to:
Copper
Brass
Beryllium
Chromium
Lead
Galvanized Metal
PRECAUTION
Transportation truck consideration:

Direct sunlight prevention
Temp. below 40 F
Proper insulation to avoid heat from ground
Hazardous material regulation:
Tubes containing <2500 pounds are NOT considered hazardous
GREEN RESIN
A new concept: "STYRENE FREE" alternative

Decrease in negative environmental impacts

No HAPs and VOCs
NEED FOR GREEN RESINS
STYRENE
Reactive Diluent used in resin production
EPA contaminant level for drinking water: 0.1mg/L
WHO odour threshhold: 0.1 mg/cubic meter
Carcinogenic Effects
Problems related to Liver, Kidney and Circulatory system
STYRENE RELEASE:
DIFFERENT PATHWAYS
Installation Practices

Insufficient Curing

Some degree of permeability in the liner
TYPES
Based on source:
Renewable Material
Recycled Material
Styrene Free
Percent Renewable/Recycled Content:
PETROLEUM & BIO-DERIVED RESINS:
A COMPARISON
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTGES
No styrene, VOCs, HAPs

Odour free

Durable option for water and wastewater infrastructure

Minimize Carbon footprint
Costlier than traditional resins

Less resin activity
GREEN RESIN MANUFACTURERS
RESIN SELECTION
RESIN PROPERTIES:
A COMPARATIVE STUDY
SHRINKAGE
determines strength
POT LIFE
time taken to get hardened
ADHESION
bonding property with other materials
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
safeguards resin against chemical attacks and imparts extended life
EH&S
Environmental Health and Safety index
MECHANICAL RESISTANCE
defines tensile strength and stiffness of matrix
THE COMPARISON
SELECTION CRITERIA
MECHANICAL
CHEMICAL
STRUCTURAL STABILITY
ADHESION
RESIN PROPERTIES
COST
DESIGN LIFE
RESIN APPLICABILITY
IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT
EXTERNAL FACTORS
EASE OF WORKING
POT LIFE
SELECTION MATRIX
QUALITY ASSURANCE

QUALITY CONTROL

QUALITY CONTROL
Regular and General methods
To complete the process in compliance with standards
Addresses all uncertainties
QUALITY ASSURANCE
Check confirmance of quality with standards
Third party involvement
KEY QC STEPS
STANDARDS AND
TESTS

STANDARDS
ASTM-F1216
ASTM-F1743
ASTM-F2019-03
ASTM-D5813
ASTM-D5813
Fabric tube strength
minimum tensile strength of 750 psi
Workmanship
no dry spots,lifting and delamination
Dimensions
min. OD(CIPP) > 98% of ID(host)
Physical Properties
flexural and tensile properties
Chemical Resistance
TESTS
Short-term tests
Long-term tests
SHORT TERM TESTS
Flexure Test ASTM D790

Hardness Test ASTM D2240

Tension Test ASTM D638

Delamination Test ASTM D903

Thickness Measurement ASTM D3567, D5813
LONG TERM TESTS
Chemical Resistance
ASTM D543, ASTM F1216, ASTM D1538, ASTM F1743

Flexural Creep ASTM D292

Strain Corrosion ASTM D3681
COMMON PROBLEMS
&
REMEDIES
THANK YOU
TRENCHLESS
I
REAL PROJECTS

CANADA
STYRENE FREE RESIN
Project Description:Toronto, Ontario, 2008
Rehabilitation of sewer line passing through Golf Course into the Don River.
Problem: Flooding of golf course due to sewer line failure.

Host pipe diameter: 30", 36" and 48"

Rehabilitation length: 700 ft.

Curing method: Hot water
EPOXY RESIN
Project Description: Ottawa, Ontario, 2008
Rehabilitation of 3.7 km cast iron by Epoxy resin.
Problem: Reddish color of water

Pipe diameter: 150mm to 305mm

Curing method: Steam for 3 hours

Advantage: 40% cost saving
Extended service life
POLYESTER RESIN
Project Description:Ottawa, Ontario, 1999-2006
Rehabilitation of sewer line in 6-lane inter-provincial arterial, King Edward Avenue roadway
Target:Extending the sewer line life to 50 years or more

Rehabilitation Length:
Storm sewer: Dia 60"-84", length 2016 ft.
Dia 15"-48", length 2000 ft.
Sanitary sewer: Dia 42"-48" length 2080 ft.

Curing method: Water
SOME MORE
EXAMPLES
GREEN RESIN
WATER MAINS
SEWER
CIPP

Future Expectations
Minimum Social Impact
Minimum Economic Impact
Minimum environmental impact
widely used & best known for sewer applications
improved properties over polyester
styrene free alternative, best suited for water mains
a new concept, styrene free, develoed from renewable or recycled material
development of cheaper & eco-friendly resins.
POLYESTER
VINYL ESTER
EPOXY
GREEN RESINS
FUTURE PROSPECTS
Full transcript