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Ghana Empire

A highly successful West African empire.
by

Averi S.

on 27 May 2013

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Transcript of Ghana Empire

Ghana Empire 800-1200 By: Averi Stegeman Geography This was the Empire of Ghana, which lasted from about 800-1200. Niger River Senegal River Sahara Desert -loose sand and always changing sand dunes -also contained flat rocky areas and select mountains -temperatures could rise over 100 F -led to Trans-Sahara trade -scattered oasis Salt Mines -large salt deposits in ground -takes many people to mine it out -formed from large bodies of evaporated water Gold Mines -many "hidden" mines of gold (super plentiful resource) -guarded location (Wangara) with their lives -could shape into whatever they wanted -could not grow any crops here Iron Deposits -many iron rock deposits throughout West Africa -used for farming tools and military/army weapons -used smelting technique to get iron out of rocks Sahara -can not grow crops -temperatures over 100 F -mostly sand with few oasis Sahel -has a little rain (can grow few crops) -still hot and dry Savannah -long rainy season -can grow grains like millet and rice -has tall grasses, Acai trees, and animals like lions and giraffes Woodland/Rainforest -rains everyday (can grow crops like fruit trees and mahogany wood) -provides shade and many sources of food Many major trade routes crossed through Ghana, making it a wealthy empire. Ghana officially participates in and controls the Trans-Sahara trade system, marking its appearance as a rising empire. Their government and economy continue to rise. Ghana Empire is at its best/peak. 800 1000 1060 A man named Tunka Manin is ruling the empire. 1068 late 1060's Muslim group (Almoravids) attack Ghana. Koumbi Saleh The Almoravids destroyed the capital Koumbi Saleh. 1074 1200 Mali begins to rise as Ghana continues to struggle. 1210 Ghana falls due to a weak army and government. Rebels revolt and completely end the empire of Ghana. Economy Currency -used pieces of salt and gold dust for their money -salt = just as valuable as gold -used currency when trading at/in markets Trans-Sahara Trade -travel by caravans across Sahara Desert to trade - -caravan = many camels and traders traveling at one time -usually took gold from south or salt from north -traveling = hard & dangerous, little to no water, scorching sun, bandits, and limited food Mediterranean Sea Indian Ocean Atlantic Ocean Religion -believed in animism (worship animal spirits) -also believed in ancestor spirits helped guide them with wisdom -eventually converted to Islam Culture Trade -Ghana got wealthy by controlling trade -taxed every load of trade merchandise -a crossroads location of trade from north, south, and east Silent Barter -load gold & salt onto boats (too heavy to carry) -float cargo down river and left it on bank of river -beat a drum to signal arrival -walk several miles inland while one side (either salt or gold) takes what them want -one side left how much "money" they think what they took valued -keep doing this process until satisfied -never talk or barter out loud with words or symbols -used camels: long eyelashes, drink 25 gallons of water, & heat resistant -oasis: water, rest, & shade stops -military: king invests in safe trade routes -spread of Islam: more trade connections in Arabia Society -based on family groups (mother, brother, etc.) -extended family includes cousins, grandparents, etc. -village = 2 or 3 extended families -village chief = 1 male elder -council of elders = several village chiefs -all family members must be loyal -men: hunt, farm, & protect (military) -family is important = valued belief -values vary from village to village -women: collect firewood, raise children, & keep house -elders: teach family traditions, tell stories through dance, & passed down village history Music -call and response leader yells/sings a verse--rest call out a response -instruments: balafon, ngoni, kora, & drums balafon = like marimba and xylophone ngoni = canoe shape with strings kora = harpish with 21 strings drums = used all the time in dances ceremonies, rituals, etc. while wearing costumes and masks -also danced often--many times in circle patterns to connect with ancestor and animal spirits Art -Nok tribe made terra-cotta sculptures of ancestors and spirits -had long/narrow faces,"weird" hairstyles, & dramatic faces -Yoruba tribe made terra-cotta with bronze and copper -Benin tribe made bronze sculptures of royal figures -made wooden masks for ceremonies and dances -super detailed & takes time to make -made textiles: stamped fabrics, story fabrics,& kente cloth stamped fabric: grid of a dark dye, fill in squares with stamps story fabrics: show great events; use applique (small piece of fabric on a bigger piece) kente cloth: sew together narrow strips of silk or fabric with symbolic colors & designs -also made ceramic storage bins, baskets, & ceramic silverware -baskets: woven fiber coils -gold jewelry: mold gold (while heated) & shape while soft Griots "A griot is a verbal artist of the Ghana people." -keep all information in a village -tell history accounts & keep track of family ancestors -rulers use griots as advisors -1 griot in every village Folktales -used to pass down history & teach morals/values -"trickster" tales: clever/ witty people or animals -ofter used Brer Rabbit as the famous trickster -Joel Chandler Harris = wrote many stories of Brer Rabbit Proverbs -proverb = a popular saying -express ideas, values, wisdom advice, etc. -this example shows importance of oral tradition: "Every time an old man dies, it is as if a library has burnt down." Government The King -Ghana Empire is ruled by a king -royal inheritance: matrilineal = son of king's sister (king's nephew) -holds a court meeting every day(to hear any problems from the empire) -is head of all armies/military -has final say in court -taxes the citizens -leads people in basic religious worship Taxes -raise king's money through taxes -in control of trade -all gold nuggets belong to the king -tax traders' loads in exports and imports -Ghana citizens & neighbor tribes pay taxes -examples: 1/6 ounce of gold for every salt load, 1/3 ounce of gold for every export, 5/8 ounce of gold for every copper load Military -king invests a lot of $ in military -every man goes through military training in case of invasion -keep borders safe, put down small revolts/protests, & maintain order protect trade routes = more traders pass through Ghana = more taxes -conquer neighbors, but neighbor kings kept much power -have to wear; knee-length cotton pants, longs shirts/tunics, sandals, & headdresses -color of shirt & # of feathers on headdress tell rank -weapons of iron (spear tips, swords, daggers,etc.) gave advantage so they won many battles -military = regular army, reserve forces, & elite forces Laws -royal inheritance = matrilineal -warriors/soldiers must wear uniforms -all gold nuggets/chunks belong to king -gold miners must keep location of mine a secret -family members must be loyal Achievements Iron Smelting -can heat rock to get metal -heat it again to soften then shape it -iron = stronger than wood or stone -made iron farm tool like hoe clear land faster 2 grow more crops quicker -iron weapons like spear tips better & harder than wood or stone sharper & more durable Textiles -stamped fabrics, story fabrics, & kente cloth Use of Gold -heat up gold nuggets to melt use softened metal to mold mold into desired shape while still soft, carve designs in or place gems/jewels Village Achievements -ceramic storage bins, utensils, tea pots, etc. -preserve food with salt -coil baskets: sticky fibers& watertight -combined extended families to make a village built walls w/ gates around village Rise Fall Control of Trade -king taxed imports & exports -built up money for king -had resources ready for demand -trans-Sahara trade brings valuable gold (makes Ghana wealthy) & salt Investing in Military -army can be called quickly to fight invaders -protect traders from bandits = more traders go to markets = more money to pay army -keep riots/revolts down, so safer towns -conquer more neighbors for more land & resources Use of Iron -1st used in farming (hoe) -can clear land faster & easier for more crops (can sell surplus) -military uses in battle in weapons -use to conquer neighbors for more land & resources to make Ghana wealthier -better than stone or wood tools Internal Rebellion -in 1200's, conquered neighbors rebelled -many years, weakened Ghana conquered by rebels -rebels could not rule Ghana and lost control -the empire was further weakened and was falling apart Invasion -Almoravids (a Muslim group) invaded/attacked in 1060's -wanted king & citizens to convert to Islam -14 years of Ghana's army keeping them "at bay" -Almoravids destroyed capital of Koumbi Saleh -ruled for a short time, but left a weakened empire -had cut off trade routes & started trading with Muslim leaders -w/o trade = no support/funding/wealth for empire Overgrazing -Almoravids brought grazing herds of cattle & sheep animals/herds ate all grass soil was exposed with no grass or roots to hold soil down hot desert winds blow away soil to reveal sand -land cannot be farmed or used for herding animals -farmers had to leave = not enough food led to Rise of Mali -built their settlements close to Niger River -controlled gold & salt trade -spread Muslim faith Thank you. This has been my Prezi on the Empire of Ghana.
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