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Transcript of Greece
Greece is located in southeastern Europe, it
has a total area of 131,957 km2 and consists of three main geographic areas:
A peninsular mainland: The biggest geographic feature, it extends from the region of Central Greece on the South to the region of Thrace on the North.
The Peloponnese peninsula: it is separated from the mainland by the canal of the Corinth Isthmus
Greek archipelago: consists of 6,000 islands and islets, scattered in the Aegean and Ionian Sea.
Greece is considered to be a parliamentary representative democratic republic.
The president is elected by parliament every five years and is considered the Head of State.
The Prime Minster is the Head of Government.
The Ministerial Council: is consisted of the Prime Minister, Ministers, Deputy Ministers and Ministers without portfolio and it is the collective decision-making body that constitutes the Government of Greece.
Elections: are normally held every four years unless the Parliament is dissolved earlier. All Greek citizens who are 18 years of age or older are allowed to vote.
Recently downgraded from a developed country to an emerging nation.
Relies on tourism, about 15 million international tourist per year and 7th most visited country in the world
In 2002 the form of currency drachma was replaced with the Euro
85% is service 12% is industry and 3% is agriculture
Export mainly to Italy 11% Germany 10% Cyprus 6.9% Turkey 6.8% and Bulgaria 6%
Imports from Germany 14% Italy 3% China 8% Netherlands 6% and France 6%
14% petroleum exports
Traditional Family Structure:
Husband/Father ("nikokiris"): the main authority figure and source of discipline. Is expected to financially provide for the family and to contribute to its progress.
Wife/Mother ("nikokira"): Focus of the home. The term refers to the female family members, especially to the wife and mother who, traditionally, takes responsibility for the housework and child-rearing.
Very important for older Greek Australians.
All family members are expected to contribute to it and have an obligation to maintain it.
Woman are still seen as subordinate to men, so they encounter many problems in the workplace.
Even with more education and same amount of work experience than men, woman are still seen as the lower citizens
The percentage of managerial posts held by men is disproportionately high, when compared to women with the same education and working experience
Even with more education and equal or more experience women earn significantly less than men do.
Greek is the official language.
and is spoken by 98% of the population.
The largest minority language is Macedonian, which is spoken by 1.8% of the population.
Albanian (spoken in the center and the south)
Turkish (spoken by Muslim communities around the Aegean)
None of these minority languages has official status.
Legislative power: is exercised by Parliament and the President of the Republic.
Executive power: is exercised by the President of the Republic and the Government.
Judicial power: is vested in the courts of law, whose decisions are executed in the name of the people.
The family is the basis of the social structure.
The family offers both financial and emotional support to its members.
The extended family is expected to help relatives in times of need, even to the point of assisting them to find employment.
Family relationships carry over into business.
The wrongdoing of one family member brings dishonor to the entire family.
Greek Family Values
The Greek Alphabet
Is an Indo-European language spoken by about 14 million people mainly in Greece and Cyprus.
Has been in continuous use for the past 2,750 years approximately since 750 BC.
Is an Alphabetic writing system.
First writing system to use vowels.
Originally written as horizontal lines either from right to left or alternating from right to left and left to right
Around 500 BC the direction of writing changed to horizontal lines running from left to right.
At first, there were a number of different versions of the alphabet used in various different Greek cities. These local alphabets, known as epichoric, can be divided into three groups: green, blue and red.
Blue group: developed into the modern Greek alphabet
Red group: developed into the Etruscan alphabet, other alphabets of ancient Italy and eventually the Latin alphabet.
About 11 million people as of 2012 census
Largest cities include Athens which is the capital and has a population of about 3.2 million people
Other big cities include Thessaloniki, Patrasans, and Heraklion
Bronze Age: (2900-2000 BC) the introduction of metal bronze.
After the neolithic period, in which people started farming and domesticating animals, causing clans to come together and form societies.
Archaic Period(750-500 BC) the greek alphabet was created , the development of art especially in poetry and sculpting flourished, the development of "polis" or city-states. Societies started building trade and defense units. Many societies formed oligarchies, which were ruled by the wealthiest people in the states.
Greek cooking today is typically Mediterranean. The ingredients most often used are olive oil, grains and bread, wine, fish, various meats (including poultry and rabbit), yoghurts and cheese, and fresh vegetables.
Klarino (clarinet is a big part of greek traditional songs)
Floyera is the Greek shepherd's flute
What's happening today?
98% of Greeks are Christian Orthodox
Orthos ('right') and doxa ('belief').
Believed to have preserved original Christianity as created by the Apostles
Lead by patriarchs
Book: The Bible
During the Byzantine empire Christian Orthodox was born ( separated from Roman Catholic church) Under Justian I
Cycle prayer at sunset and dawn
Holy mountain: Mount Athos
Nuns, monks, and church officials allowed to marry
On Gregorian Calendar: have Christmas 13 days after other Christians
God revealed himself as Jesus Christ
Festivals in Greece have been an integral part of the country’s culture and economy for many decades.
The majority of festivals in Greece are held during the summer months in open-air spaces, ancient theaters or specially created installations at sites of particular historic and aesthetic interest.
Greece, being the meeting point for the western and eastern countries, has a culture that reflects this.
Theater: recreational as well as educational, influences the way of life.
Music: Byzantine music, traditional folk music and mostly classical music have contributed to the country’s musical tradition as well as its international fame.
Architecture: Besides the Classical and the Byzantine, one could mention a long succession of architectural traditions that flourished on Greek soil.
Clothing: Ancient Greek clothing was typically homemade and the same piece of homespun fabric that was used as a type of garment, or blanket. From Greek vase paintings and sculptures, we can tell that the fabrics were intensely colored and usually decorated with intricate designs. The ancient clothing has inspired various modern designers and has greatly influenced fashion.
Important Greek Holidays
lasts 12 days
Is celebrated near January 7th
The Feast of all Feasts
Is Considered the most important holiday on Greek calendar and one of the richest in folklore, the celebration of Orthodox Easter (Pascha) is unique throughout Greece.
The Greek Carnival, "Apokries":
Is mainly a period of masquerading, but also eating, drinking and dancing. Traditionally, it begins ten weeks before Greek Orthodox Easter and culminates on the weekend before "Clean Monday".
Greek government-debt crisis
Golden dawn party.
Greece was living beyond its means even before it joined the euro. After it adopted the single currency, public spending soared.
Public sector wages, for example, rose 50% between 1999 and 2007 - far faster than in most other eurozone countries.
The government ran up big debts paying for the 2004 Athens Olympics.
While money flowed out of the government's coffers, its income was hit by widespread tax evasion. So, after years of overspending, its budget deficit - the difference between spending and income - spiraled out of control.
Much of the borrowing was concealed, as successive Greek governments sought to meet the 3%-of-GDP cap on borrowing that is required of members of the euro.
When the global financial downturn hit - and Greece's hidden borrowings came to light - the country was ill-prepared to cope.
Debt levels reached the point where the country was no longer able to repay its loans, and was forced to ask for help from its European partners and the IMF in the form of massive loans.
Greek government-debt crisis
In May 2010, the European Union and IMF provided 110bn euros ($140bn: £88bn) of bailout loans to Greece to help the government pay its creditors.
A second, 130bn-euro bailout was agreed earlier this year.
The vast majority of Greece's private-sector creditors agreed to write off about three-quarters of the debts owed to them by Athens. They also agreed to replace existing loans with new loans at a lower rate of interest.
Greece's lenders have found ways to shave an extra 40bn euros off Greece's debt load.
In return for all this help, the EU and IMF insisted that Greece embark on a major austerity drive involving drastic spending cuts, tax rises, and labour market and pension reforms.
These have had a devastating effect on Greece's already weak economic recovery. The latest Greek budget predicts that the economy will shrink by 6.5% this year and by a further 4.5% in 2013. Greece has already been in recession for four years, and its economy is projected to have shrunk by a fifth between 2008 and the end of this year.
Without economic growth, the Greek government cannot boost its own tax revenues and so has to rely on aid to pay its loans.
Many commentators believe that even the combined 240bn euros of loans and the debt write-off will not be enough
What has been done to help?
Golden Dawn Party:
.The Golden Dawn Party is a right-wing extremist political organization that has been called Neo-Nazi , Nationalistic , fascist and racist by scholars and the Greek Media.
. The party has gained traction in the past few years in light of the country's economic crisis , campaigning in favor of Austerity , anti-immigration and economic reform to reduce unemployment.
.The party ran in the Greek national elections of 2012 and won 7% of popular support thus securing 22 seats in Greek Parliament.
. The party is led by Nikolaos Michaloliakos who has openly embraced Racism and Nationalism for the party.
Classical Period (480-323 BC)
The Persian Wars
-In which the Persian Empire tried to take over the Greeks
-The Greeks were outnumbered, so the Persians didn't see them as a challenge.
-Athens had a good navy and sparta had a good army
-They had three battles, Marathon, Thermopylae and Salamis.
RESULT of the war, Greece created the Delian wing to save money in case of a war.
-happened because Athens and sparta were in conflict, partly due to the fact that Athens was dominating the Greek nations.
-Rome to took over in 146 BC.
Religion in Ancient Greece explained nature and why things were. The greek Gods lived on Mount Olympus, highest mountain in Greece.
Parthenon: most famous temple
The Olympic Games
Mythology: Zeus fought his father Kronos for power over the world and defeated him on a mountain.Under this mountain laid the city of Olympia
In Ancient Greece, the Olympic Games lasted from around 776BC until 393 AD when they were banned by the Emperor.
Coroebus is said to have been the first Olympic winner
The games happened every 4 years
This tradition was revived in 1896 when the first modern Olympic Games occurred
Byzantine Empire (330-1453 AD):
Constantinople was the capital of the Greece
It became prosperous because it was a road in between the trading route of east and west.
Grievances against each other (Rome an Greece)
The Great Schism- East and West divide (Roman Catholics and Christian Orthodox)
The Barbarian evasions plus the rising "popularity" of the east caused Rome to fall