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Amber Munro

on 14 January 2014

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Transcript of Birds

Welcome to a discovery of 3 Birds presented to you by Team 2
Bald Eagle
Bald Eagles typically nest in forest areas and stay close to large bodies of water for food supply. They are found in tall, mature trees that allow for viewing of the surrounding landscape.[4]. These species steers clear from heavily developed areas, however tolerate human activity when feeding. During winter they can be found in dry, open uplands that are close to accessing open water for food[5].

The Bald Eagle is known for its powerful and versatile flying abilities. When gliding and flapping, they reach speeds of 56–70 kilometres per hour (35–43 mph), and about 48 kilometres per hour (30 mph) while carrying fish [6]. These dominant species often attacks other birds to steal their food, and occasionally do the same to mammals. ‘When on land, the Bald Eagle’s gait is an awkward, sideway rocking motion’[6].

Fish constitutes as their prime source of diet but they also eat birds, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, and mammals, especially when there is a short supply of fish. Bald Eagles can also go without food for a long period of time [7].

The Bald Eagle reaches its sexual maturity at the age of four or five. Bald Eagles mate for life but when one dies, the surviving eagle will prosper with a new mate. The mating courtship involves elaborate gestures of calling and impressive flight displays that include cartwheels and swoops [8].
Rainbow Lorikeet
Rainbow Lorikeets are found in open woodlands with exotic plants, often near water as well as a variation of forests throughout south and east Indonesia, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia and northern and eastern parts of Australia [9].

Rainbow Lorikeets are a bird in which can behave socially with people and will often fly to strangers for feed [10]. Active and fast moving the Rainbow Lorikeet can travel over 50km to feeding sites, often in large loud groups of 10 to 50 birds [9]. Leaving their roost at dawn, time is most spent flying around and rarely spent on the ground [9].

Feeding on a large range of plant species Rainbow Lorikeets consume fruits, seeds, and nectar, pollen and parts of flowers [11]. Native plants are a preferable source of food such as the exotic lemon-scented gums, coral trees as well as fruit trees such as figs and dates [9].

Being monogamous they generally pair for life [12]. The female lays 2 to 3 white eggs high up in a tree cavity and incubates the eggs which take between 25 to 26 days to hatch[12]. Once hatched the male feeds the female and they both feed the young [12].

Considering that there are over 10,000 varieties of birds in the world the Macaw, Bald Eagle and Rainbow Lorikeet all managed to have similarities, they all typically mate for life and prefer to habituate in forest areas. This discovery of the 3 birds shows that birds are social animals and have throughout time perfected their characteristics to survive in an ever changing world.
Students of Team 2
Amber Munro - 5883156
Brydie Sewell -5886082
Misty Rahman - 5869374
The following presents an investigation on a selection of birds focusing in on the Macaw, Bald Eagle, and Rainbow Lorikeet. It explores their breeding behaviors, feeding types, natural habitats and interesting behaviors.


[1] National Geographic 2013, Macaw, National Geographic, viewed 19 August 2013 <http://animals.nationalgeographic.com.au/animals/birds/macaw>
[2] San Diego Zoo2103, Birds|Macaw, San Diego Zoo.Animals, viewed 21 August 2013 <http://animals.sandiegozoo.org/animals/macaw>
[3] Alan T.K Lee et al. 2010, “Parrot claylick distribution in South America: do patterns of where help answer the question of why?” Ecography 33:503-513. pp. 503 <http://macawproject.org/clay-lick-work>

[4] Hinterland Who's Who, 1992. Bird Fact Sheets: Bald Eagle.
[Online] Available at: http://www.eagles.org/vu-study/survival/habitat-or-environment.php
[Accessed 25th August 2013].
[5] Vanderbilt University, 2011
Eagle Survival - Habitat or Environment. [Online]
Available at: http://www.eagles.org/vu-study/survival/habitat-or-environment.php
[Accessed 29th August 2013].
[6] Jenkins, J. M. & Jackman, R. E., 1994. Field Experiments in Prey Selection By Resident Bald Eagles in the Breeding and Non-Breeding Season. Journal of Field Ornithology, 65(4), pp. 441-446.
[7]Harris, M. S., 2002. Animal Diversity Web. [Online]
Available at: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Haliaeetus_leucocephalus.html
[Accessed 19 August 2013].
[8]Gilbert, S., Tomasson, P. & Kramer, P. A., 1981. International Zoo Yearbook. History of captive management and breeding of Bald eagles at the National Zoological Park, 21(1), pp. 101-109.
[9] Tamra Chapman (2006) Pest Notice: Rainbow Lorikeet. [Online]
Available at: <http://www.mundaring.wa.gov.au/aboutcouncil/minutesandagendas/documents/council%20minutes%202008/02-%20february/eac/attachment%202%20-%20rainbow%20lorikeet.pdf >(Last Accessed 6 September 2013)
[10] Barbara Heidenreich (2004-2010) Good Bird Inc: Lories and Lorikeets. [Online]
Available at: <http://www.goodbirdinc.com/parrot-profiles-lorikeets.html> (Last Accessed 12 September 2013)
[11] Australian Animal Zoo (2011) Australian Animal: Rainbow Lorikeet. [Online]
Available at: <http://www.australiananimallearningzone.com/rainbow-lorikeet.htm> (Last Accessed 6 September 2013)
[12] BBC (2012) Science and Nature: Animals: Wild Facts: Rainbow Lorikeet. [Online]
Available at: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/wildfacts/factfiles/3077.shtml> (Last Accessed 12 September 2013)

Macaw, Bald Eagle & Rainbow Lorikeet
Macaws are found in Central and South America, they are particularly found in rainforests with green canopies, fruits and colourful flowers suited to their colouring [1]. They can also be found in forests along rivers and grassland areas with trees [2].

The Macaw is known to be a very vocal bird vocalizing to communicate within their flocks. They also use their loud vocals to mark their territory and to identify one another [1]. Screaming is the natural call for the Macaw [2], the Macaws kept in captivity are known to repeat words they hear from humans and often are found to be practicing and teaching themselves new words [2].

The Macaw’s diet consists mainly of fruit, nuts, insects and snails. Some species are known to eat damp soils which help to neutralize chemicals from their fruity diet [1]. A rare site only seen within the Western Amazon region (Peru) is clay licking, where the Macaws flock to cliff faces. It is said that the clay protects the birds from toxins and digestion inhabiting plant secondary compounds in their diets [3].

Macaws are a bird that typically mate for life, with the female Macaws nurturing the eggs the male’s hunts and bring back food to the nest. The Macaw doesn’t just breed with its mate but also enjoys mutual grooming and sharing food [1]

Figure 1. Source <http://www.flixya.com/photo/2140095/macaw-love>
Figure 2. Source
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Vaildation of the Online Sources
The information brought to you by team 2 is from online sources which contained the following criteria to ensure credibility and accuracy:
The online resources could be identified as a group or individual responsible for the content.
The online resources contained no noticeable misspellings and broken links.
The sites had external links to other credible sources.
The information was factual with consistenty throughout.
The sources were not biased towards any specific opinion.
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