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Paige Ballagh

on 13 January 2014

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Transcript of Globalization

Globalization of Disease
The growth to a global or worldwide scale
First Major Pandemic
The first major pandemic on U.S soil occured nearly a century ago, beginning in 1918, when the influenza virus killed more than 600,000 people, forcing scientists and doctors to take a hard look at methods to control the spread of disease.
How Do Pandemics Spread?
A disorder or incorrectly functioning organ, part, structure, or system of the body resulting from the effect of genetic or developmental errors, infection, poisons, nutritional deficiency or imbalance, toxicity, or unfavorable environmental factors; illness; sickness; ailment.
The rapid spread of a disease on a global scale. This is similar to the term "pandemic" which is an epidemic (an illness that is spread upon people) of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region, like multiple continents or even worldwide.
Globalization of Disease
Spanish Flu
In little more than a month 195,000 Americans died, making influenza the nation's greatest killer of all time.
The HIV/AIDS virus is a global pandemic, this is because it covers a vast area of earth and is currently actively spreading. The spread of this virus is known to have originated in Sub-Saharan Africa and began spreading to the United States and other parts of the world in 1969.
The HIV/AIDS virus is spread through unprotected sex. It is a blood borne disease so it can also be spread through things such as contaminated needles.
Sub-Saharan Africa is the region most affected by the HIV/AIDS virus, in 2010 68% of all reported cases and 66% of reported deaths were from this region.

In the past, communities experiencing plague pandemics have persecuted and even executed individuals whom they believed were responsible for the illness. Officials have also confined individuals who were ill or at a high risk of catching the illness to their homes. Today, we refer to this as quarantine.
In many parts of the world, plague is endemic, meaning it exists all the time just not necessarily at an epidemic level. This is something to be conscious of when traveling, as you can catch a plague in major cities as well as in the Earth's most remote corners.
According to The National Intelligence Council, one of the major contributors to the tens of millions of foodborne illnesses and 9,000 deaths that occur annully has been the US doubling their food imports over the last 5 years.
Swine Influenza is caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruses. The most recent outbreak of this disease was caused by the influenza C strain of the virus. Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig
populations worldwide.
In order to fight off these pandemics, vaccines must be created to slow the spread of diseases throughout the populations. A common example .
is a flu vaccine. Vaccines must be produced on a large scale in order to be an effective public health tool.

An antigen is a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
There are many ways the antigen can be produced. Typically it is grown from primary cells such as chicken eggs, or cultured human cells
Swine Flu
Black Death
The Bacterium, "Yersinia pestis" multiply rapidly in infected animals, typically rodents. The Fleas that inhabit these rodents then were transferred onto humans and spread the bacteria to the human. It is believed to have started in China and Central Asia before spreading west. It was spread through merchant ships that carried the disease to Europe and the Mediterranean. This disease is believed to have killed between 30-60% of Europe's population, and is a prime example of how easily diseases can spread.
1. The lymph glands in the neck, armpits and groin area become swollen, filled with bacteria, and will sometimes turn black. The swollen glands are called buboes.

2. Fever, chills and weakness, possible vomiting of blood.

3. Black spots along the arms and thighs

4. Blackening of the fingers and toes owing to gangrene.

5. Later symptoms include bleeding from the ears and seizures

This disease was often called the seven day death because many people died in 7 days after getting the plague.
World Health Organization
The world health organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. This organization is responsible for resolving current pandemics such as HIV. They have designed a chart for identifying pandemic situations
The globalization of disease, or a pandemic, is the number one threat to civilization. An attack via airborne, or water-based contagion would be absolutely devastating. A disease can be carried on nearly anything, as seen with the black plague. Vaccines are key in stopping and curing a disease, however until vaccines are publicly available, the next best way is to minimize the amount of contact you make with others.With the world population increasing every day, we are very likely to see another massive pandemic in our lifetime.
What you Need to Know
What You Can Do:
Some simple steps you can do to keep from getting sick is to always sanitize as often as possible, especially after shaking hands, touching keyboards (library), touching doorknobs, etc. Also try to avoid touching your face throughout the day, this is by far the biggest cause of illness.

Whenever you are opening canned foods, wash the can thoroughly with hot water before opening it, as most can foods can travel from across the world and sit in many dirty warehouses before arriving at your house.
SARS: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
A serious form of a pneumonia developed from a virus.
The virus is believed to have began in November 2002 in the Guangdong province in China.
The WHO declared the outbreak contained in July 2003.
The virus was identified by WHO physician Dr. Carlo Urbani who detected it in a 48-year old Chinese business man who had traveled from Guangdong, through Hong Kong to Hanoi Vietnam.
SARS spread extremely quickly around the world, with almost every continent being affected.
This out break had an estimated 8,000 cases and 750 deaths.
The WHO believes that the SARS virus is here to stay.
Although we are not currently experiencing a SARS pandemic, with each new case we are at risk for an outbreak.
SARS can be caught by breathing in the air particles of someone with the virus, Also by:
Sharing a straw with an infected person, or holding their hand.

Small Pox
Small pox is a deadly virus that at one point was found throughout the entire world and had a death rate of 30%. The virus is believed to have originated in India. This virus is a perfect example of how quickly a disease can globalize because of how easy it is to get. You can catch smallpox simply through saliva droplets that can be contracted on even clothes and bedsheets.

Before the WHO wiped out the disease it was an extremely tragic one to contract. Located in the small blood vessels of the skin, smallpox caused fluid filled raised blisters to form all over the body. The most aggressive form of the disease had a mortality rate of 30-35%.

The last naturally occurring case of small pox was diagnosed in 1977. The WHO has since wiped out the disease and vaccinations are no longer required.
By: Shae & Paige
Some Facts:
Airborne Disease:
The term 'airborne disease' refers to any disease that is caused by pathogens and is transmitted through the air.
Pathogens may include viruses, bacteria and fungi.
They can spread through coughing, sneezing, raising of dust etc.
Foodborne Disease:
Refers to any illness caused by contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food.
According to the WHO infants, young children and the elderly are at the highest risk for foodborne disease.
Why do they spread so quickly?
Airtravel: with air travel being so popular a disease can spread from a single city to the entire world with just one flight.
When a disease breaks out humans usually have little to no immunity to it.
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